The Commandments of Islam
The following are examples of what Islam has commanded:
Justice and equity. Allah (
(Verily, Allah enjoins justice and doing deeds of righteousness perfectly, and giving (help) to kith and kin; and forbids
all licentious acts, evil, and oppression, He admonishes you, that you may take heed.)
Abu Bakr the first Caliph of Islam, said the following words when he took command: “Those who you regard as strong are weak in my sight until I take the rights they owe, and the weak are strong until I give them their right. Obey me as long as I obey Allah in your regards…”
One must be just in regards to both relatives as well as those who are not related to him. Allah says: (And whenever you give your word [i.e. judge between men or give evidence, etc.], say the truth even if a near relative is concerned, and fulfill the Covenant of Allah, This He commands you that you may remember.) [6:152]
Justice should be shown in times of pleasure and in times of anger, to Muslims and disbelievers. Allah says: (O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah and be just witnesses and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety, and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Well Acquainted with what you do.) [5:8]
Allah states that justice may be imposed by force. Allah says: (Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance [justice] that mankind may keep up justice. And We brought forth iron wherein is mighty power (in matters of war), as well as many benefits for mankind.)
In explaining this verse, Sheik Islam b. Taymiyyah said: “The goal of sending Messengers and revealing Books is that humans stand for justice, which is achieved through fulfilling the rights of Allah and the rights of His creation. Whoever deviates away from the Book, he is straightened with ‘iron’.”
It enjoins preferring others over oneself, for it is an indication of true love and well-wishing of which its results can be clearly felt in society. It builds and strengthens individual bonds and is indicative of their love to help and serve one another. Allah (says praising those who prefer good for others over themselves: (…and they give others preference over themselves, even though they were in need. And whosoever is saved from his own covetousness, such are they who will be the successful.)
- It commands that one seek company with the righteous and forbids that one seek evil companionship. The Prophet ( s) gave an excellent example explaining the consequences of keeping company of both good and evil people. He ( s) said: “The example of a righteous and evil companion is like one who carries perfume and another who is a blacksmith. As for the one who carries perfume, he will either give you some perfume, you might buy some, or (at least) you will find a pleasing scent with him. As for the blacksmith, either he [the blacksmith] will burn his clothes, or he will find a hideous odor from him.” (al-Bukhari)
It orders that Muslims strive to reconcile between people at times of dispute or disunity. Allah says:
(There is no good in most of their secret talks save (in) him who orders charity, righteous acts, or conciliation between
mankind, and he who does this, seeking the good Pleasure of Allah, We shall give him
a great reward.)
Reconciling between people has a great reward, similar to the reward of prayer, fasting, and other obligatory acts of worship. The Prophet ( s) said: “Shall I not inform you of a level even better than the Fast, the Prayer, and charity? Reconciling between people, for indeed disunity between people is what uproots the Religion.” (Abu Dawood & at-Tirmidhi)
Islam has legalized lying in this regard…to make people unite and prevent division. The Prophet ( s) said: “I do not regard a lie when a person tries to reconcile between people saying something not intending what was understood, (whether to) reconcile between people, at times of war, or a husband or wife in order to please their spouse.” (Abu Dawood)
It commands that Muslims enjoin virtue and righteousness and prevent evil and vice with all means possible, each according
to his ability. This is the basis for security in society which prevents the spread of injustice,
moral corruption, and ensures that rights are maintained and the law that is implemented
is the Shari'ah, not laws of pandemonium. The Prophet (
“Whoever of you sees an evil act, let him change it with his hand, if he is not able, then with his tongue, and if he is
not able, then with his heart, and that is the weakest [level] of Imaan.”
Through this, those who are ignorant of some aspects of Islam would learn them, and those who are heedless would be admonished. The morally corrupt are rectified while those who are righteous are helped, and the Law of Allah is upheld and implemented. Allah says: (Help you one another in righteousness and piety; and do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Severe in punishment.) [5:2]
The Prophet ( s) explained the consequences if people stop enjoining the good and forbidding evil. He ( s) said: “The likes of those who stay within the limits set by Allah and those who trespass them is like a group of people who divided their places on a ship (before setting out to sea). Some of them were on the top deck while others were on the lower deck. When those on the lower deck required water, they had to pass by those on top. So they said, ‘If we make a hole in our part, we will not have to bother those on top.’ If they (those on top) left them to do as they pleased, they would all be destroyed, and if they were stopped they would all be saved.” (al-Bukhari)
Allah also mentions the punishment related to forsaking this act. He says: (Those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved were cursed by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary. That was because they disobeyed (Allah and the Messengers) and were ever transgressing beyond bounds. * They used not to forbid one another from the evil which they committed. Vile indeed was what they used to do.) [5:78-9]
Islam, however, has prescribed some guidelines and principles which must be followed when enjoining good and prohibiting evil. From them are the following:
- The one who takes up this task must be knowledgeable about what he enjoins or prohibits,
so that he would not cause the person he is talking to stray away from the Religion.
Sufyaan bin Abdullah ath-Thaqafi said:
“I said: 'O Messenger of Allah (
s) ,advise me with something which I can abide by.' He said: 'Say My Lord
is Allah, and then stay upright.' I said: 'O Messenger of Allah (
s) ,what do you fear for me the most?' He then took hold of his tongue and
Ibn Hibban, may Allah have mercy on him, said: 'The reason the Prophet ( s) held his tongue with his hand, and said: 'this' when he could have said 'the tongue' without holding it with his hand was that the Prophet ( s) knew well the knowledge he was teaching people; so he wanted to apply the knowledge he was teaching…he knew this knowledge because he told the one who asked: 'the thing I fear most, is that it would lead you through many trials'…so he ordered him to refrain from talking much. Therefore, the Prophet ( s) applied what he knew, to clarify the difference between places a person should seek knowledge and when he should give knowledge.'
- Prohibiting an evil should not lead to a greater one being committed.
- He should not engage in what he prohibits nor should he neglect what he enjoins. Allah says: (O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do? * Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do.) [61:2-3]
- He should be gentle and kind when he enjoins or prohibits. The Prophet ( s) said: “Nothing is done with kindness except that it is beautified, and nothing is devoid of kindness except that it is disfigured.” (Muslim)
- He should also bear any inconvenience resulting from this task. Allah mentions that Luqman said in his great advice to his son: (O my son, establish prayer, enjoin what is right, forbid what is wrong and be patient over what befalls you. Indeed that is of the matters (requiring) determination.) [31:17]
- The one who takes up this task must be knowledgeable about what he enjoins or prohibits, so that he would not cause the person he is talking to stray away from the Religion. Sufyaan bin Abdullah ath-Thaqafi said: “I said: 'O Messenger of Allah ( s) ,advise me with something which I can abide by.' He said: 'Say My Lord is Allah, and then stay upright.' I said: 'O Messenger of Allah ( s) ,what do you fear for me the most?' He then took hold of his tongue and said: 'This!'” (at–Tirmidhi)
Islam has enjoined good manners. The Prophet (
“The most complete Believers in terms of faith are those who have the best manners, and the best of you is the best to his
The Prophet ( s) also pointed out the reward of good manners. He said: “The most beloved and closest of you to me on the Day of Requital are the best of you in character. And indeed the most hated and farthest of you to me on the Day of Requital are those who talk with affectation, boast, and the ‘Mutafayhiqoon’.” They said, “O Messenger of Allah ( s) We understood those who talk with affectation and those who boast, but who are the ‘Mutafayhiqoon’?” He said: “The arrogant.” (at-Tirmidhi)
- Islam has enjoined acts of kindness. The Prophet ( s) said: “Indeed Allah is benevolent and loves benevolence, and excellent manners, and dislikes poor manners.” (Tabraani in al-Awsat)
- Islam has legislated that one confirm reports before issuing a judgment concerning them. Allah says: (O you who believe! If a rebellious evil person comes to you with a news, verify it, lest you harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done.) [49:6]
Islam has enjoined that people be sincere towards others. The Prophet (
“The Religion is sincerity.” We asked, “To whom?” He replied, “To Allah, to His Book, to His Messenger, and to the leaders
of the Muslims and their general folk.”
Being sincere to Allah is achieved by believing in Him, worshipping Him alone, negating any partners that are associated with him, and declaring Him far removed from any imperfection in His Names and Attributes. One should believe that He is the Disposer of all affairs of this universe. Whatever He wills must come to pass, and whatever He does not, will never be. One must comply with all His commands and avoid His prohibitions.
Sincerity towards His Book is realized by believing that it is the Word of Allah, revealed by Him, and that it is the last of the Heavenly Scriptures. One must apply and abide by its commands, and hold as lawful all that it has declared as such, and refrain from all that is prohibited therein.
Sincerity towards His Messenger entails that one obey his orders, believe everything He informed us of, and refrain from that which He prohibited. He must be loved and respected, and his Sunnah must be followed and disseminated amongst the masses.
One must show sincerity to the leaders of the Muslims by obeying them unless they enjoin sin, by guiding them to that which is best and helping them in it, and by abstaining from rebelling against them. Rather, they must be advised gently and reminded of the rights of the people.
Sincerity towards the Muslim masses is achieved by guiding them to what is good and beneficial, both in matters concerning their Religion and worldly life. One should help them in fulfilling their needs, and protect them from harm. One should love for them what he loves for himself and dislike for them what he dislikes for himself, and he should treat them in the same manner he would like to be treated.
Islam has enjoined generosity due to the affection and love it spreads. The Prophet ( s) said: “Nothing is heftier in the scale than good manners.” (Abu Dawood)
Allah set a guideline in the following verse defining the limits of generosity. Allah says: (And let not your hand be tied (like a miser) to your neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach (like a spendthrift), so that you become blameworthy and in severe poverty.) [17:29]
- Islam has enjoined concealing people’s faults and helping to relieve their distress and to ease their affairs. The Prophet s said: “Whoever eases some distress of a Muslim in this world, Allah will ease some distress of his on the Day of Recompense. Whoever eases the burden of a loan (by repaying it, pardoning it, or extending the time period for payment) for one for whom it is hard to repay it, Allah will make things easy for him in this life as well as the next. Whoever covers the fault of a Muslim, Allah will cover his faults in this life and the next. Allah continues to help his slave as long as he helps his brothers.” (Muslim)
Islam has enjoined and encouraged patience, whether in doing deeds of obedience or refraining from prohibitions. Allah (
(So wait patiently for the Decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes.)
It has also enjoined patience in facing the different trials through which Allah tests His slaves, such as poverty, hunger, disease, and fear. Allah says:
(And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to the patient.
- Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: ‘Truly! To Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return.’
They are those on whom are the blessings from their Lord, and receive Mercy, and it is they who are the guided-ones.)
Islam commands that one suppress his anger and pardon others while having the ability to take revenge. This strengthens the
bonds between the members of the society and distances those things which may raise enmity
and sever ties. Allah has promised a great reward and has highly praised those who try to
acquire this characteristic. Allah says:
(And race to forgiveness from your Lord, and for a Garden as wide as the heavens and the earth, prepared for the pious. Those
who spend in times of prosperity and adversity, who repress their anger, and who pardon
others; verily, Allah loves the doers of good.)
Islam orders that one return an evil act with goodness in order to join the hearts and remove hatred as well as to deter one from taking revenge. Allah says: (The good deed and the evil deed are not equal. Repel (the evil) with one which is better. Then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend.) [41:34]