The Spiritual Aspect of Islam


Worship in Islam is a term which generally denotes obedience to the commands of Allah, whether those commands be related to speech, deeds, or beliefs. Creedal acts of worship are called the ‘Articles of Faith’, explained in the following pages.

Belief in Allah

    Belief in Allah entails that Allah is One and Unique in the following aspects:

  • Allah is One and Unique in His Lordship: This means that one must attest that Allah exists, and that He is the Creator of this universe, its Owner and its Proprietor and the One Who disposes of all its affairs. He is the One Who causes all things in existence to occur; nothing comes into exis- tence except if He wills it. Allah says: "Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of all that exists!" [7:54]
    Allah has clarified that He is the only Creator, and that it is impossible that there be another Creator with Him. He says: “No son (or offspring or children) did Allah beget, nor is there any god along with Him; (if there had been many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Far removed is Al- lah from every imperfection!” [23:91]
  • Allah is One and Unique in His Right to Worship: This means that one must certainly attest that Allah is the only true god, Who deserves to be worshipped, and all acts must be dedicated to Him alone. One should not rely upon any- one besides Him, nor should a person supplicate to anyone besides Him. A person should only invoke Allah to relieve some harm or fulfill some need. Allah says: "And We did not send any Messenger before you but We inspired him [saying]: none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah), so worship Me (Alone and none else and none else)." [21:25]
  • A in His Names and Attributes: This means that one must believe in the uniqueness of Allah’s Names and Attributes, and that he is only attributed with the best and most lofty of Names and Attributes, and that He is far removed from every imperfection. Allah says: “And ( all ) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names.” [7:180]

    We believe and affirm with what Allah has described Him - self in addition to what His Messenger ﷺ attributed to Him, all without drawing similarity or parallels between the attributes of Allah and those of His creatures, and with - out suspending, distorting, or denying the meaning of His names and attributes. Allah says: “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer..” [42:11]

Belief in the Angels

This is to believe in the existence of another life form called angels. No one knows their exact number except Allah Him- self. They obey Him, fulfill His commands, and guard over the universe and the creatures that dwell within. They carry out specific orders of Allah, from administration, observation, guarding and protect - ing the universe, as well as its creatures, all according to Allah’s Will and Order. Allah says: “And by those Angels who arrange to do the Commands of their Lord.” [79:5]

Allah also says: “And those [angels] who distribute [provisions, rain, and other blessings] by [Al- lah’s] Command.” [51:4]

The angels were created from light. The Prophet ( s) said: “The angels were created from light, the Jinn were created from a smokeless flame of fire, and Adam was created from what was described to you (in the Qur’an: black dry clay).” (Muslim)

The Angels are from the unseen world. Although they were created from light, they cannot be seen. Allah has however given them the ability to change their appearance in order to be seen and witnessed. Allah informs us that the angel Gabriel came to Mary in the form of a human, a fact also mentioned in the Bible. Allah says: “She placed a screen [to screen herself] from them; then We sent to her a Spirit from us (Gabriel and he appeared before her in the form of a man in all respects. She said: ‘Verily! I seek refuge with the Most Beneficent (Allah) from you, if you do fear Allah.’ (The Angel) said: ‘I am only a Messenger from your Lord, [to an- nounce] to you the gift of a righteous son.’” [19:17]

The Prophet ( s) saw Gabriel in the true form Allah created him. He had six hun- dred wings, and he had blocked the horizon due to his size.

The angels have wings; some have two wings, others have three, while others have more than that. Allah says: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the [only] Originator of the heavens and the earth, Who made the angels messengers with wings, two or three and four. He increases in creation what He wills. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things.” [35:1]

As for their other physical attributes, Allah has not informed us of them. Allah has however, specifically informed us of some of their task and roles.

The angels constantly worship Allah, obey Him, and praise Him. Allah says: “They (i.e. the angels) glorify His Praises night and day, [and] they never slacken [to do so].” [21:20]

Allah created them to worship and obey Him. Allah says: “The Messiah (Jesus u) will never be so proud to reject being a slave to Allah, nor [will] the angels who are near [to Allah].” [4:172]

The angels act as emissaries between Al- lah and His messengers amongst man- kind. Allah says: “Which the trustworthy Spirit (Gabriel) has brought down. Upon your heart ( d) that you may be [one] of the war - ners. In a plain Arabic language.” [26:193-195]

Allah created them to carry out different tasks with which He commands them: “They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they are commanded.” [16:50]

The angels are not the children of Allah; but they must be respected and loved. Allah says: “And they say: ‘The Most Beneficent (Al - lah) has begotten a child [from the an- gels].’ Far removed is He from every im- perfection! They (the angels), are but hon- ored slaves. They speak not until He has spoken, and [then] they act on His Command.” [21:26-27]

The angels are not partners, associates, or rivals with Allah. Allah says: “Nor would He order you to take angels and Prophets for gods. Would He order you to disbelieve after you have submitted to Allah’s Will?” [3:80]

Allah informs us of the names and tasks of some of the Angels:

  • Gabriel was given the task of revelation. Allah says: “ Which the trustworthy Spirit (Gabriel) has brought down. Upon your heart ( d) that you may be [one] of the Warners.” [26:193-4]

  • Michael has been assigned the task of rain and vegetation. Allah says: “ Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His angels and His messengers and Ga- briel and Michael – then indeed, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.” [2:96]

  • The Angel of Death is the Angel given the task of collecting peoples’ souls at the time of death. Allah says: “ Say: ‘The Angel of Death who is set over you will take your souls, then you shall be brought back to your Lord.” [32:11]

  • Israafeel is the angel who was given the task to blow the trumpet on the Day of Resurrection. Allah says: “ Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kin - ship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one an - other.” [23:101]

  • Malik is the Keeper of Hellfire. Allah says: “ And they will cry: ‘O Malik! Let your Lord make an end of us.’ He will say: ‘Verily, you shall abide forever.’” [43:77]

  • The Zaabaaniyah are the angels who are given the task of punishing the in- habitants of Hellfire. Allah says: “Then, let him call upon his council [of helpers], We will call the guards of Hell [to deal with him]!” [96:17-8]

    Every human has been assigned two angels; one who records his good deeds, and the other who records his sins. Allah says: “[Remember!] That the two receivers (Recording Angels) receive, one sitting on the right and one on the left [to note his or her actions]. Not a word does he [or she] utter, but there is a watcher by him ready [to record it].” [50:17]

  • Ridhwaan is the Keeper of Paradise and there are other angels who are charged with protecting humans. There are many more, and each has been assigned a specific task. Some have been mentioned in the Qur’an and the Sunnah, while others have not, but we must believe in them all.

The Benefits of Belief in the Angels

Through belief in the angels, we may benefit in the following ways:

  • We come to know the Magnificence of Allah, His abil - ity, and His All-Encompassing Knowledge and Will, for indeed the magnificence of His creation is a proof of the magnificence of the Creator.
  • When a Muslim feels that there are angels closely watching what he is saying and doing, and that every- thing he does is either for him or held against him, he is keen to perform righteous deeds and abstain from sins, whether he is alone or in public.
  • One is saved from fables and superstitions held by those who have incorrect beliefs in regard to the Unseen world.
  • One comes to know the Mercy which Allah shows to His righteous slaves.

Belief in Allah’s Books

  • To believe in Allah’s Books is to believe that Allah revealed Heavenly Books to His Messengers to convey them to man- kind. These Books, at the time of their revelation, contained nothing but the truth. In them was the Message of the One- ness of Allah (I): that there is no creator, administrator, or own- er except Him, that all worship should be directed to Him and no one else, and that to Him belongs all excellent Names and Attributes. He is nothing like His creation, and none can be compared to Him. Allah says "Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice." [57:25]
    A Muslim must believe in all the Heavenly Books and he must believe that they were originally from Allah. However, it is not lawful for him to abide by its laws, since these Books were revealed to specific nations during specific times.

    • The Scriptures of Abraham and Moses: The Qur’an has given a brief insight about the religious fundamentals found in these scriptures. Allah says: "Or, has he not been informed of what is in the scriptures of Moses? And [of] Abraham who fulfilled (the commandments): That no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another; And that man shall have nothing but what he strives for; And that his striving shall soon be seen; Then shall be rewarded for it with the fullest reward; and that to your Lord is the goal." [53:36-42]
    • The Torah: The Torah is the Sacred Book which was revealed to Moses. Allah says: "Verily, We did send down the Torah [to Moses], therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah’s Will, judged the Jews. And the rabbis and the priests [too judged the Jews by the Torah after those Prophets] for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s Book, and they were witnesses thereto. Therefore, fear not men but fear Me [O Jews] and sell not My Verses for a miserable price. And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the disbelievers." [5:44]

      The Qur’an has explained some of the teachings which were found in the Torah, and from them is a mention of some of the characteristics of the Messenger Muhammad ( s) . Allah says: "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those who are with him are se- vere against disbelievers , and merciful among themselves. You see them bow- ing and falling down prostrate [in prayer], seeking Bounty from Allah and [His] Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces from the traces of [their] prostration. This is their description in the Torah (Torah)." [48:29]

      Allah also mentioned in the Qur’an some of the religious rulings revealed in the Torah. Allah says: "And We ordained therein for them: ‘Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal.’ But if anyone remits the retalia- tion by way of charity, it shall be for him expiation. And whosoever does not judge by that which Allah has revealed, such are the wrongdoers." [5:45]

    • The Zaboor (Psalms): The Zaboor is the Scripture revealed to David. Allah says: "...and to David We gave the Zaboor." [4:163]
    • The Injeel (Gospel): The Injeel is the Sacred Book which was revealed to Jesus. Allah says: "And in their footsteps, We sent Jesus, son of Mary, confirming the Torah that had come before him. And We gave him the Injeel, in which was guidance and light and confirmation of the Torah that had come before it, a guidance and an admonition for the Allah-fearing." [5:46]

      The Qur’an has explained some of what was found in the Torah and the Injeel; such as the prophecy of Muhammad ( s) : "...and My mercy encompasses all things; so I will ordain it [specially] for those who guard [against evil] and give Zakah, and those who believe in Our verses. Those who follow the unlettered Prophet, whom they find written down with them in the Torah and the Injeel, [which] enjoins them good and forbids them evil, and makes lawful to them the good things and makes unlawful to them impure things, and re - moves their burden and the shackles which were upon them; so those who believe in him and honor him and help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, these it is that are the successful." [7:156]

      They also encourage that people fight jihad in Allah’s cause in order to make His religion supreme. Allah says: "Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah’s Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Torah and the Injeel and the Qur’an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success." [9:111]

    • The Noble Qur’an : One must believe that the Qur’an is the Speech of Allah which Gabriel brought to Muhammad ( s) in clear Arabic lan - guage. Allah says: "Which the trustworthy Spirit (Gabriel) has brought down. Upon your heart ( d) that you may be [one] of the warners. In a plain Arabic lan - guage." [26:193-5]

    The Qur’an is different than the Heavenly Books that pre - ceded it, in the following ways:

    • The Qur’an is the last of the Heavenly Books, confirming the previous Books concerning the Message of His Oneness and the obligation to worship and obey Him. Allah says: "And We have sent down to you the Book (this Qur’an) in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and a witness over it" [5:48]
    • All previous Books were abrogated by the Qur’an. Its teach- ings are divine, final, everlasting and suitable for all times and places. Allah says: "This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as a religion." [5:3]
    • The Qur’an was revealed to mankind at large; not to a specific nation, as were previously revealed Heavenly Books. Allah says: "And We have not sent you ( s) except to all of mankind, as a giver of glad tidings and a warner, but most people know not." [34:28]

      Even if the other Books agree with the Qur’an in the fundamen- tals of the religion, they address a specific people. Due to this, its rulings and regulations are particular to them. It is attributed to Jesus in the Bible that he himself said: “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house (children) of Israel.” [Matthew 15:24]

    • Its recitation, memorization and teaching are regarded as acts of worship. The Messenger of Allah ( s) said: “Whoever recites one letter of the Qur’an, he will receive ten re- wards. I do not mean that ‘Alif Laam Meem’ is one letter, rather, ‘Alif’ is a letter, ‘Laam’ is a letter, and ‘Meem’ is a letter.” (at-Tirmidhi)
    • The Qur’an includes all the legislations which are needed to reform society. In his book ‘Towards understanding Islam’, H.G. Dorman says about the Qur’an: It (the Qur’an) is literal revelation of God, dictated to Muhammad ( s) by Gabri- el, perfect in every letter. It is an ever-present miracle witnessing to itself and to Muhammad ( s) , the Prophet of God. Its miraculous quality resides partly in its style, so perfect and lofty that neither man nor jinn could produce a single chapter to compare with its briefest chapter, and partly in its content of teach- ings prophecies about the future, and amazingly accurate information such as the unlettered Muhammad could never have gathered of his own accord.
    • It is a historical account explaining the series of religions which were revealed to the various prophets and messengers. It accounts for what transpired between them and their nation, from Adam to Muhammad, may Allah praise them all.
    • Allah has preserved the Qur’an from all distortions, adulterations, additions, or impairments. Allah says: "Indeed it is We ourselves Who have sent down the Remembrance (the Qur’an) and surely, it is We Who shall guard it [from distortion]." [15:9]
    • As for the other Books, Allah did not promise to protect them, for they were revealed to a particular people in a particular time. For that reason, they were distorted. Allah says: "Do you (faithful believers) covet that they will believe in your religion despite the fact that a party of them (Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allah (the Torah), then they used to change it knowingly after they understood it?" [2:75]

      In regards to the distortion of the Christians in the Gospels, Allah says: "And from those who call themselves Christians, We took their covenant, but they have abandoned a good part of the Message that was sent to them. So We planted amongst them enmity and hatred till the Day of Resurrection, and Allah will inform them of what they used to do. O people of the Scripture! Now has come to you Our Messenger (Muhammad r) explaining to you much of that which you used to hide from the Scripture and passing over (i.e. leaving out without explaining) much. In - deed, there has come to you from Allah a light and a plain Book (this Qur’an). " [5:14-15]

      Among the things that the Jews and Christians innovated in their religions, was the falsehood of attributing a son to Allah. Some Jews claimed that Ezra was the son of Allah, while the Christians claimed that the Messiah (Jesus) was the son of Al - lah. Allah says in this regard: "And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Chris- tians say: the Messiah is the son of Allah. That is a say- ing from their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old. Allah’s Curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth! " [9:30]

      Allah refuted their claims and clarified the correct belief one should hold, saying: "Say : ‘He is Allah, One. Allah is the Self-Sufficient Master Whom all creatures need. He be - gets not, nor was He begotten; And there is none equal or comparable unto Him.’" [112:1-4]

      Steve Allen, said in his book: ‘On the Bible, Religion, & Morality’: “The number of errors [in the Bible]... amounts to about 6,000! It is absurd to try to make this factual reality conform to the popular impression that the Bible is totally error-free.”

    The Benefits of Belief in Allah’s Books

    Through belief in the various Scriptures that Allah has informed us, we benefit in the following ways:

    • One realizes the mercy and love Allah has for His slaves, since He revealed to them Books which guide them to the Path which leads to His Pleasure. He safeguarded man from confusion and from the evil of Satan.
    • One realizes the great wisdom of Allah, since He gave each nation a set of laws that suited them during their times.
    • To distinguish true believers from those who are not. It is incumbent upon one who believes in his own Book to believe in the other Heavenly Books
    • [4] To increase the good deeds of the Believers; for the one who believes in his Book and the Books that came after his Book receive his reward twice.

    Allah says: "Those to whom We gave the Scripture [i.e. the Torah and the Injeel, etc.] before it, - they believe in it (the Qur’an). And when it is recited to them, they say: ‘We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from those who submit themselves to Allah in Islam as Muslims. These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient, and repel evil with good, and spend out of that which We have provided them." [28:52-4]

Belief in the Messengers

  • One must believe that Allah chose the finest amongst mankind to be Messen - gers whom He sent to His creation with specific legislations: to worship and obey Allah and to establish His religion and His Oneness. Allah says: “And We did not send any Messenger before you but We inspired him [saying]: none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah), so wor - ship Me (Alone and none else). ” [21:25]

    He ordered His Messengers to convey the Message to people, so that they would not have any proof against Allah (2) after He sent them.They are bearers of glad-tidings of the Pleasure of Allah and His Paradise, which is reserved for those who believe in them and their teachings. They are also sent as warners to their peoples, to warn them of the anger of Allah and His punishment which is reserved for those who disbelieve in them and their teachings. “And We send not the Messengers but as givers of glad tid- ings and as warners. So whosoever believes and does righ- teous good deeds, upon such shall come no fear, nor shall they grieve. But those who reject Our verses, the torment will touch them for their disbelief. ” [6:48-9]

    There are many Prophets and Messengers; no one knows their exact number except Allah. Allah says: “And, indeed We have sent Messengers before you ; of some of them We have related to you their story, and of some We have not related to you their story. ” [40:78]

    One must believe in all of them and that they were human; they were not supernatural beings. Allah says: “And We sent not before you but men to whom We inspired, so ask the people of the Reminder (Scriptures) if you do not know. And We did not create them (the Messengers) [with] bodies that ate not food, nor were they immortal.” [21:8]

    Allah says about Muhammad ( s) : “Say: ‘I am only a man like you. It has been inspired to me that your God is One God. So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord.’” [18:110]

    And He said about Jesus: “The Messiah (Jesus), son of Mary, was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His moth - er (Mary) was a believer. They both used to eat food (as any other human being, while Allah does not eat). Look how We make the aay - aat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to them, yet look how they are deluded away (from the truth).” [5:75]

    They do not have any attributes resembling Allah’s. They can neither extend benefit, nor cause harm. They have no control over the universe, nor can they do with it as they please. They cannot do anything which only Allah is capable of. Allah says: “Say: ‘I possess no power of benefit or hurt to myself except as Allah wills. If I had the knowledge of the Unseen, I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched me. ” [7:188]

    They fulfilled the trust and fully conveyed the message of Allah. They are the most knowledgeable and most pious of creation. Allah protected them from ly- ing and treachery. Allah says: “And it was not for a Messenger to bring a sign except by Allah’s Leave.” [13:38]

    If one believes in some while he disbelieves in others, he has committed an act of disbelief can no longer be considered a Muslim. Allah says: “Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make dis- tinction between Allah and His Messengers saying, ‘We believe in some but re- ject others,’ and wish to adopt a way in between. They are in truth disbelievers. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment.” [4:150-1]

    The Qur’an has mentioned the names of twenty-five prophets and messengers. Allah says: “And that was Our Proof which We gave Abraham against his people. We raise whom We will in degrees. Certainly your Lord is All Wise, All Knowing. And We bestowed upon him Isaac and Jacob, each of them We guid- ed, and before him, We guided Noah, and among his progeny David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron. Thus do We reward the good doers. Zachariah, and John and Jesus and Elias, each one of them was of the righteous. And Ish- mael and Elijah, and Jonah and Lot, and each one of them We preferred above all of the creation.” [6:83-6]

    • Allah says about Adam: "Allah chose Adam, Noah, the family of Abraham and the family of Imran above all of the creation." [3:33]
    • Allah says about Hood: "And to ‘Aad (We sent) their brother Hood. He said, ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other god but Him. Certainly, you do nothing but invent (lies)!" [11:50]
    • Allah says about Salih: "And to Thamood (We sent) their brother Salih. He said: ‘O my people! Wor - ship Allah, you have no other god but Him. He brought you forth from the earth and settled you therein, then ask forgiveness of Him and turn to Him in repentance. Certainly, my Lord is Near, Responsive." [11:61]
    • Allah says about Shu‘aib: "And to the Median [We sent] their brother Shu‘aib. He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah, you have no other god but Him, and give not short measure or weight, I see you in prosperity; and verily I fear for you the torment of a Day encompassing.’" [11:84]
    • Allah says about Enoch: "And (remember) Ishmael, and Enoch and Isaiah, all were from among the patient." [21:85]
    • Muhammad ( s) was the last and final Messenger; no Messenger will come after him until the Final Day. Allah says: "Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets." [33:40]

    • The religion of Muhammad ( s) abrogated the religions which preceded it. It is the complete and final religion of truth which is obligatory to be followed, and it will continue to be so until the Final Hour.

      Allah calls some of the Messengers ‘Ulul-‘Azm’ (those of strong determination). They were the most determined of the Messengers in conveying the Message; they were patient and steadfast. They were Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, may Allah praise them all and keep them safe from all evil. Allah says: "And (remember) when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you , and from Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, son of Mary." [33:7]

      Who is Muhammad ?

      His name is Muhammad bin (1) Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib bin Haashim. His Kunyah is Abul-Qaasim (The father of Qaasim). He was from the Arab tribe of Quraish whose ancestry traces back to ‘Adnaan. ‘Adnaan was from the children of Ishmael, the Prophet of Allah and son of Abraham, the most beloved chosen servant of Allah.

      The Prophet ( s) said: “Indeed Allah chose the tribe of Kinaanah over other tribes from the children of Ish - mael He chose the Quraish over other tribes of Kinaanah; He chose Banu Haashim over the other families of the Quraish; and He chose me from Banu Haashim.” (Muslim)

      He was born in the year 571 C.E. in the honored city of Mecca. Mecca was the religious center of the Arabian Peninsula, as it housed the Ka’bah, built by Abra- ham and his son, Ishmael, may Allah praise them and keep them safe from all evil.

      His whole life exemplified truth and trustworthiness. He never told a lie, acted treacherously, or deceived anyone. Even before he received revelation, he was known amongst his people as ‘The Trustworthy’, and they would entrust him with their belongings when they intended to travel. He was also known as ‘The Truth- ful’. He was of excellent character and manners. He was eloquent in speech. He always wished well for others. Allah describes him, saying: “And verily, you are on an exalted standard of character.” [68:4]

      He received his first revelation from Allah at the age of forty, and he remained in Mecca thereafter for thirteen years calling to the worship of Allah alone. He then migrated to Medina and called its people to Islam, where they accepted it. There, Allah revealed the remaining legislations. He conquered Mecca eight years after his migration, and he died when he was sixty-three, after having received the entire Qur’an from Allah through divine revelation. All the legislations of the Religion were revealed, completed and perfected, and the majority of Arabs accepted Islam.

    The Benefits of Belief in the Messengers.

    Through belief in the various Messengers that Allah sent, we benefit in the fol - lowing ways:

    • One realizes the mercy and love Allah has for His slaves; since He sent to them Messengers who conveyed to them His religion. They in themselves were examples whom people emulated.
    • To distinguish the believers who are truthful in their Faith from others; for it is incumbent upon one who believes in his own Messenger to believe in other Messengers who are mentioned in his Book.
    • Those who believe in their Messengers and then believe in Muhammad ( s) receive double reward.

Belief in the Last Day

    One must believe that the life of this world will come to an end. Allah says: “Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish.” [55:26]

    When Allah wills this world to come to an end, Allah will order Angel Israafeel to blow the Trumpet. At that point, everything on Earth will perish. Then, He will order him to blow it again, and upon that, all people will rise from their graves in their bodies, all over the world, from the time of Adam. Allah says: “And the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth will collapse and die, except him whom Allah wills. Then it will be blown a second time and behold, they will be standing, looking on (waiting).” [39:68]

    Belief in the Last Day constitutes belief in everything that Allah and His Mes- senger, may Allah praise him, has informed us about.

  • To believe in the life of the Barzakh: The Barzakh denotes the time after one’s death until the Last Day. In it, the believer will live a life of pleasure, while the disbelievers will be punished. Allah says: “The Fire; they are exposed to it, morning and afternoon41, and on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the Angels): ‘Make Pharaoh‘s people enter the severest torment!” [40:46]
    To believe in Resurrection: Allah will resurrect mankind, na- ked, barefooted, and uncircumcised. Allah says: "The disbelievers claim that they will never be resurrected. Say: Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed of what you did, and that is easy for Allah." [64:7]

    Due to the fact that many do not believe that Allah will resur - rect all of creation, the Qur’an affirms this fact by striking many examples. Of these examples are the following:

    • Contemplating how Allah brings dead earth to life and sprouts therein all types of plants. Allah says: “And you see the earth barren, but when We send down water on it, it is stirred [to life], it swells and puts forth ev- ery lovely kind [of growth]. That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and it is He Who gives life to the dead, and it is He Who is Able to do all things. And surely, the Hour is coming, there is no doubt about it, and certainly, Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves. ” [22:5-7]

    • Pondering over the creation of the heavens and earth which is indeed greater than the creation of humans. Allah says: “Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is Able to give life to the dead? Yes, He surely is Able to do all things.” [46:33]

    • Reflecting on how a person wakes up after sleep, which is similar to resurrection after death. This is why sleep is called ‘the lesser death’. Allah says: “It is Allah Who takes away the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep. He keeps those (souls) for which He has ordained death and sends the rest for a term appointed. Verily, in this are signs for a people who think deeply” [39:42]

    • Pondering over his own creation. Allah says: “And he (man) puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation. He says: ‘Who will give life to these bones when they have rotted away and became dust?’ Say: ‘He will give life to them Who created them for the first time! And He is the All-Knower of every creation!’ ” [36:78-9]

  • To believe in the Gathering: Allah will gather all creation together and call them to account. Allah says: “And [remember]) the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away , and you will see the earth as a leveled plain, and we shall gather them all together so as to leave not one of them behind.” [18:47]
  • To believe that people will be brought before Allah in ranks: Allah says: “And they shall be brought before your Lord, standing in ranks: Now certainly you have come to Us as We created you at first. Nay, you thought that We had not appointed to you a time of the fulfillment of the promise.” [18:48]
  • To believe that one’s limbs will bear witness. Allah says: “Till, when they reach it (Hellfire), their hearing (ears) and their eyes, and their skins will testify against them as to what they used to do. And they will say to their skins, ‘Why do you testify against us?’ They will say: ‘Allah has caused us to speak, He causes all things to speak: and He created you the first time, and to Him you are made to return.’ And you have not been hiding yourselves (in the world), lest your ears, and your eyes, and your skins testify against you; but you thought that Allah knew not much of what you were doing.” [41:20-2]
  • To believe in the Questioning. Allah says: “But stop them; verily they are to be questioned. ‘What is the matter with you? Why do you not help one another (as you used to do in the world)?’ Nay, but that Day they shall surrender.” [33:40]
  • To believe in the Siraat (Bridge) over Hell, which everyone must pass over. Allah says: “There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell); this is with your Lord a Decree which must be accomplished.” [19:71]
  • To believe in the weighing of deeds. Allah will call people to account and reward those who did well with what they deserve, due to their righteous deeds, their belief, and adherence to their Messengers, and He will punish those who did evil. Allah says: “And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of Resur - rection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We to take account.” [21:47]
  • To believe in the handing out of Scrolls and Books. Allah says: “Then, as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand, He surely will receive an easy reckoning. And he will return to his family in joy! But whosoever is given his Record behind his back. He will invoke (his) destruction. And he shall enter a blazing Fire and made to taste its burning.” [84:7-12]
  • To believe that people will be rewarded with Paradise or Hellfire in an everlasting and eternal life. Allah says: “Verily those who disbelieve from among the people of the Book and the pagans will abide in the Fire of Hell. They are the worst of creatures. Verily, those who believe and do righteous deeds, they are the best of creatures. Their reward with their Lord is the Para - dise of Eden, underneath which rivers flow. They will abide therein forever. Allah will be pleased with them, and they with Him. That is for him who fears his Lord.” [98:6-8]

  • To believe in the prophetic reservoir, intercession, and all other things of which the Messenger of Allah ( s) informed us.
  • The Benefits of Belief in the Last Day

    Through belief in Last Day, we benefit in the following ways:

    • It makes one prepare himself for that Day by perform- ing good deeds, and competing therein, and abstaining from sinful acts and fearing His punishment.
    • It comforts the believers; since they know if they forgo something in this world, Allah rewards them with some- thing better in the Hereafter
    • To distinguish the believers who are truthful in their faith from those who are not.

Belief in Qadaa & Qadar

    One must believe that Allah knew everything before it came into being, as well as what would occur afterwards. He then brought them into existence, all in ac- cordance to His Knowledge and Decree. Allah says: “Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.” [54:49]

    Everything which occurred in the past, which is occurring in the present and what will occur in the future is known to Allah before it came into existence. Allah then brought it into being, all in accordance to His Will and Decree. The Messenger of Allah ( s) said: “A person is not a believer until he believes in the Divine Decree, its good and its evil consequences – until he knows that whatever happened to him would have never missed him, and what missed him would never have occurred.” (at-Tirmidthi)

    This belief does not contradict the fact that one must strive to attain things. To clarify this, if a person wants a child he must do certain things to achieve this goal, such as getting married. After he does all that is in his power, he may be granted what he wishes or not. The reason for this is that a person would real- ize that what he does to achieve his goal is not in fact the true cause behind it; rather it is the Will of Allah. These ‘means’ to fulfill our goals are also considered from the Divine Decree of Allah. The Prophet may Allah praise him, was asked: “O Messenger of Allah, do the verses and supplications we recite and the medi- cine we take to cure ourselves waive the Divine Decree of Allah?’ [He replied,] ‘They are from the Divine Decree of Allah. ” (al-Haakim)

    Hunger, thirst and feeling cold are from the Divine decree. One seeks to satisfy hunger through eating, thirst through drinking and coldness by keeping warm. They seek to fend themselves from what was written for them from hunger, thirst and coldness by what was written for them from eating, drinking, and seeking warmth. They seek to prevent one aspect of the Divine Decree with another.

The Benefits of Belief in the Divine Decree

Through the belief in the Divine Decree, one benefits in the following ways:

  • Belief in the Divine Measure results in a clear conscience and peace of heart. No room is left for one to feel sad about what results or does not come to be. Uneasiness and unrest of the heart leads to many psycho- logical disorders, such as depression and stress, all of which have a negative result on the body. Belief in this concept pre- vents and cures these sicknesses. Allah says: “No evil befalls on the earth nor in your own souls, but it is in a book before We bring it into existence; surely that is easy to Al- lah* So that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, nor be exultant at what He has given you; and Allah does not love any arrogant boaster.” [57:22-3]
  • It encourages knowledge and exploration of what Allah cre- ated in this universe. Afflictions, such as disease, drive humans to seek a cure, and this is done by searching for the sources of medicine which Allah, the Most High, created in this universe.
  • It eases the effects of calamities and eliminates the feeling of regret. If someone loses money in a business, this is consid- ered a hardship. If a person is sorrowful after that, this would lead to two hardships: the hardship of the calamity and that of the feeling of remorse and sorrow. If one believes in the Divine Decree, he would be pleased with the results no matter what. The Prophet ( s) said: “The strong believer is better and more beloved to Allah than a weak believer, and in each one there is good. Be keen to do what benefits you and seek Allah’s help, and do not be neglect - ful in doing so. And if any mishap befalls you, do not say, ‘If only I had only done such and such,’ but rather say, ‘This is from the Divine Decree of Allah, and whatever He Wills He does),’ for indeed, ‘if,’ opens the door for Satan’s works.” (Muslim)
  • It increases one’s dependence upon Allah and removes fear of the creation. Ibn ‘Abbaas said “I was behind the Messenger of Allah ( s) one day and he ﷺ said to me: ‘O young boy, I will teach you some words: Guard Allah’s commandments and he will guard you. Guard Allah’s commandments, you will find Him in front of you (with His pro - tection). And If you ask, then ask Allah, and if you seek help, then seek help from Allah. Know that if the whole world was to gather to help you, they would never be able to help you except with something which Allah has already written for you. And if the whole world gathered to cause you some harm, they would not be able to harm you except with something which Allah has already written for you. The pens have been lifted, and the scrolls have dried’.” (at-Tirmidhi)
    Belief in the Divine Decree is not, as some mistakenly think, a call to put one’s trust in Allah without striving or fulfilling the means, for the Messenger of Allah ( s) replied to a person who asked him: “‘Should I tie my camel and trust in Allah or leave my camel untied and trust in Allah?’ He said, ‘Tie it and trust in Allah’.” (at-Tirmidhi)