Distinguishing Qualities of Islam
There are explicit texts in the Qur’an as well as the Hadeeths of the Prophet ( s) which indicate that all religions called to the same basic principle, to worship Allah alone in exclusion to all others. Allah sent prophets to mankind, and each one’s message abrogated the one prior to it, from the apostleship of Noah until the commissioning of Muhammad . The Messenger of Allah ( s) said: "Indeed I am to the other prophets as is a man who built a house beautifully and perfectly, except one brick which was not placed in its corner. People circle and admire it, but say, ‘If only a brick was put in this place!’ I am that brick, and I am the last of all prophets."
No prophet or messenger of Allah will appear after Muhammad ( s). The only exception to this is Jesus. When the Final Hour draws near, he will descend to the earth and fill it with justice and equity as it was filled with oppression and tyranny. He will not convey a new religion, but rather he will rule with Islam. The Messenger of Allah ( s) said: “The Hour will not be established until the son of Mary (Jesus) descends as a just ruler judging with the religion of Islam. He will break the cross and kill the pig. He will abolish the jizyah and there will be a surplus of wealth until no one will accept it.”
All Messengers called to the oneness of Allah and disproved association of any partners to Him in His dominion or worship. They also proclaimed Allah as being far removed from every imperfection. They called their peoples to worship Him alone without any intermediaries. They reformed mankind and guided them to a path through which they would achieve true happiness in this world and in the Hereafter. Allah ( y) says: “He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islam) which He ordained for Noah, and that which We have inspired to you, and that which We ordained for Abraham, Moses and Jesus, saying you should establish the religion (i.e. to do what it orders you to do practically) and make no divisions in it.”
Islam has abrogated all previous religions, and it is the last religion which Allah chose for humanity. Allah will not accept anything else from His slaves. Allah says “(And We have sent down to you the Book (this Qur’an) in truth, confirming the Scriptures that came before it and a witness over them.) ”
Because it is the last religion, Allah has promised to preserve and guard it from all distortions until the Day of Judgment, contrary to previous religions which were sent at specific times to specific people. Allah says: “Indeed it is We who have sent down the Reminder (i.e the Qurán and Sunnah) and indeed it is We who will guard and protect it. ”
The Messenger of Islam, Muhammad ( s) is the last of all messengers. No messenger will come after him. Allah says: “Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets.”
This does not mean that Islam does not regard or believe in the previous messengers or revelations; rather, Jesus conveyed to his people the same message Moses conveyed to his people; and Muhammad ( s) conveyed the same message which Jesus conveyed to his people: to worship Allah alone, while associating no partners with Him
Muhammad ( s) was the last of prophets and messengers. Muslims are commanded to believe in all the messengers and Divine Scriptures. Whoever rejects any of them commits disbelief and is not considered a Muslim. Allah says: “Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers, saying, ‘We believe in some but reject others,’ and wish to adopt a way in between. They are in truth disbelievers.”
The religion of Islam completed and perfected the legislations which came before it. As these religions were meant only for a specific nation and time, they are not suited for the present world and times. Islam, a universal and eternal religion perfected and completed those aspects which were limited to past peoples and times, affirming those aspects suitable for all times and peoples. Allah says: “This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.”
For this reason it is the best religion. Allah says: “You [Muslims] are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin all that Islam has ordained and forbid all that Islam has forbidden, and you believe in Allah. And had the People of the Scripture [Jews and Christians] believed, it would have been better for them; among them are some who have faith, but most of them are disobedient and rebellious.”
Islam is a global religion that addresses all of humanity. It was not revealed for a specific race or class, but rather one in which all people are regarded as equal. There is no segregation based upon color, language, location, and lineage; rather, it is based upon specific beliefs which all people share, keeping them united. Whoever believes in Allah as the One and only true Lord, that Islam is the correct religion and that Muhammad ( s) is the last messenger, he is regarded as a Muslim, irrespective of race, color or ethnicity. Allah says: “And We have not sent you (except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all humanity. ”
Allah says about Noah: “ Indeed, We sent Noah to his people. ” [7:59]
About Prophet Hud, Allah says: And to (the People of) ‘Aad (We sent) their brother Hood. He said: “O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other god but Him!” [7:65]
About Salih, Allah says: And to (the People of) Thamud (We sent) their brother Salih. He said: “And to (the People of) Thamud (We sent) their brother Salih. He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him!” [7:73]
About Lot, Allah says: “And (remember) Lot, when he said to his people…” [7:80]
About Shu‘aib, Allah says: “And to (the People of) Midian, (We sent) their brother Shu‘aib.” [7:85]
About Moses, Allah says: “Then after them We sent Moses with Our Signs to Pharaoh and his chiefs.” [7:103]
And about Jesus, Allah says: “And (remember) when Jesus, son of Mary, said: ‘O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allah unto you confirming the Torah (which came) before me.” [61:6]
Due to the fact that Islam is a global religion and that it calls mankind at large, Allah commands Muslims to convey its message to the world. Allah says: “Thus We have made you [Muslims], a just and the best nation, that you be witnesses over mankind, and the Messenger (Muhammad) be a witness over you. ” [2:143]
As for the previous messengers, they were sent to their specific nations
The legislations and teachings of Islam are from Allah; thus they are unchangeable. They are unlike human legislations which contain mistakes, shortcomings and are continuously influenced by exterior factors, of which are surroundings, culture, tradition and society. This is something which can be clearly witnessed at present. Man-made legislations and systems are unstable, often needing revision and change. What suits one society may not suit another, and what suits one time period may not suit another. The legislations and systems of a capitalist society, for example, are not suitable in a communist society. Anyone who tries to introduce legislations and systems into a particular society must take their particular goals and views into consideration. Furthermore, a person with more insight and knowledge may appear, introducing concepts which contradict or add to the previous legislation.
As for the legislation of Islam, it is, as we described, of a divine origin. The one who legislated it is the Creator of all things, the One who knows what best suits their particular conditions and what rectifies their affairs. No one, no matter what status and station he may achieve, has the right to oppose, change, add, or omit from this legislation. Allah says: “Is it the judgment of (the Days of) Ignorance that they seek? And who is better in judgment than Allah for a people who have firm belief.” [5:50]
The religion of Islam is a religion whose texts are general, making it suitable for all times and places. It has introduced general principles and teachings which are unalterable; they are not influenced by the passage of time or change of locality, whether they be principles dealing with belief, such as the belief in Allah, His Angels, Books, Messengers, the Last Day, and Predestination; or principles of worship, such as the specific actions of prayer and their timings, the amount to be given in Zakaah (obligatory charity) and to whom it is to be given to, the time of the obligatory Fast, and the characteristics, time and regulations of Hajj. Every new matter which should appear in the world must be scrutinized in light of the Qur’an and authentic Sunnah of the Prophet ( s) in order that it be given a ruling. If a clear ruling cannot be taken from the Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet ( s) regarding the issue, the pious, god-fearing scholars should exert their effort to derive a textual-based ruling, keeping the Muslim’s interest in mind, and to consider the conditions of his age and society. This is done by examining the general meaning of the verses of the Qur’an and the sayings of the Prophet ( s) and studying their jurisprudential maxims, such as the following:
- All things are considered lawful in the religion, unless a specific or general text renders it to be unlawful.
- Protecting and safeguarding benefits and common interests of society.
- Islam is a religion of ease, which seeks to remove all unnecessary hardship.
- Harm must be avoided.
- Preventing evil by preventing the means through which it spreads.
- Dire needs render unlawful things as lawful.
- Dire needs legalize the unlawful according to the situation.
- Warding harm is given precedence to attaining benefits.
- If one has no choice but to do one of two evils; he should do the lesser of the two.
- Harm should not be warded off with a similar harm.
- Specific harms should be withheld for the sake of warding off general harms.
There are many other jurisprudential maxims similar to these. Upon making a textual-based ruling, the scholar should not be affected by his desires; nor should he utilize it to gain some personal benefits; he should try his best to benefit society without opposing a textual proof, for Islam is suitable for every age, and fulfills the necessities of every society
There are no prejudices in the religion of Islam. Every item of its legislation applies to everyone; there is no difference between the rich and poor, noble and commoner, ruler and subject or white and black. Everyone is equal in relation to the implementation of Shari’ah law.
During the time of the Prophet ( s) a woman from the clan of Makhzoom from the tribe of the Quraish (the most noble clan of the most noble tribe) committed theft.
Some of those around him said,
“Who will intercede with the Messenger of Allah ( s) on her behalf?”
“Who can be so bold other that Usaamah bin Zaid, the beloved of the Messenger of Allah ( s) Usaamah tried to intercede, but the Prophet ( s) replied, Do you try to intercede in one of the set punishments of Allah?”
He then stood and addressed them, saying:
“O People, the thing which destroyed those before you was that if one of their noble committed a theft, they did not punish him, but if one of their common folk stole, they established Allah’s fixed punishment upon him. By Allah, if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, committed a theft, I would cut her hand off.” (Muslim)
The textual sources of the religion of Islam are still present today in their original forms, free from any omission, addition, or substitution. The main sources of the religion of Islam are the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Messenger ( s) .
The Qur’an at present is still in its original form, as it was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad ( s) ,with the same letters, verses, and chapters. It has not been altered in the least.
The Prophet ( s) assigned scribes from the best of his companions to write what had been revealed to him, such as ‘Ali, Mu‘aawiyah, Ubay bin Ka’b, and Zaid bin Thaabit. Whenever the Prophet ( s) received revelation, he ordered his scribes to record what was revealed to him, informing them exactly in which chapter and verse to place it. The Qur’an was memorized and preserved in books as well as in the hearts of the Muslims.
Muslims paid great importance to the Book of Allah. They raced and competed with each other to learn and teach it, all in order to receive the reward which the Prophet ( s) promised: “The best of you are those who learn the Qur’an and teach it.” (al-Bukhari)
They spent their time and wealth in order to serve, take care of, and memorize the Qur’an. The Muslim masses transmitted it from one generation to the next (keeping in mind that its memorization and recital is considered an act of worship.) The Prophet ( s) said: “Whoever recites one letter of the Qur’an, he will receive ten rewards. I do not mean that ‘Alif Laam Meem’ is one letter, rather, ‘Alif’ is a letter, ‘Laam’ is a letter, and ‘Meem’ is a letter.” (at-Tirmidhi)
The second source of legislation is the Sunnah of the Messenger ( s) which acts as an explanation and clarification of the Qur’an. Allah has protected it from adulteration and all types of distortion by means of trustworthy and pious scholars who sacrificed their lives to study the hadeeths of the Messenger of Allah ( s) and its chains of narration, investigating whether they can actually be attributed to him or not. They looked at each individual in the chain of narration and researched them, seeing if they were pious and trustworthy. They sifted all the hadeeths which were narrated from the Prophet ( s) and did not accept anything except after it was proven authentic. These hadeeths reached us free of any fabrication. Whoever wishes to research the methodology employed in the preservation of the Sunnah, they may refer to the books of the science of Hadeeth. It will become clear to anyone who researches this science that there is no doubt concerning the narrations which have reached us, and they will also realize the great effort made by scholars in the service of the Prophet’s ( s) Sunnah.
The religion of Islam regards all people as equals in their nature, whether in regards to sex, color, or language. The first human who Allah created was Adam. He is the father of all mankind. He then created from Adam his wife, Eve, the mother of all humanity, and made them to procreate. In their original nature and creation, all humans are equal. Allah says: “O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women. And fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual [rights], and [do not cut the relations of] the wombs (kinship).” [4:1]
The Prophet ( s) said: “Indeed Allah has rid you of the [different types of] pride [you unjustly felt] during your days of ignorance before Islam, and [specifically] the ignorance of taking pride in your ancestry. [People are either two types:] a believer who fears Allah, or a disbelieving and doomed sinner. All people are children of Adam, and Adam [was created] from soil.” (at-Tirmidhi)
All previous and future human generations are from the progeny of Adam. All humans had one religion and one language, but as they grew in number, they spread across the earth and inhabited different lands, the result of which was that they differed in color, nature, and spoke different languages. This also led them to differ in their thoughts, lifestyles, and beliefs. Allah says: “Mankind were but one community [i.e. on one religion], then they differed (later), and had not it been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, it would have been settled between them regarding what they differed. ” [10:19]
The teachings of Islam render all people equal, giving no consideration to their sex, race, language, or nation. All are equal in front of Allah. They only differ in regards to their implementation of the religion of Allah in their lives. Allah says: “O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and We made you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you in the sight of Allah is he who has the most piety and God-consciousness.” [49:13]
According to the equality which is acknowledged in Islam, all humans are regarded as equal in their freedom, though regulated by the religion, so as not to allow animalistic liberty for doing whatever they please
The freedom to think and voice one’s opinion. Islam encourages its followers to speak the truth and express their thoughts and opinions, those which are constructive and focused, without fearing any blame. The Prophet ( s) said: “The best type of jihad is a word of truth in the face of an oppressive ruler or leader.” (Abu Dawood)
The Companions of the Messenger of Allah ( s) implemented this principle. Once a man said to ‘Umar ibn ul-Khattaab, the second Caliph,
“Fear Allah O Commander of the Faithful!”
Another interjected and said,
“Do you dare tell the Commander of the Faithful to fear Allah!?”
Upon that, ‘Umar said to him: “Leave him and let him say it, for indeed there is no good in you if you do not say that to us, and there is no good in us if we do not accept it.”
On another occasion ‘Ali judged in a specific issue according to his opinion. When ‘Umar, who was the Caliph at that time, was asked about this judgment, he replied:
“If I were asked I would have judged with (such and such)…” When he was asked what stopped him from refuting ‘Ali while he was the Commander of the Faithful, he replied: “If that were in the Qur’an or Hadeeth, I would have refuted him, but it was his opinion, and opinions can be either right or wrong: no one knows which opinion holds more truth according to Allah.”
- All have the right to own and earn a permissible livelihood. Allah says: "And wish not for the things in which Allah has made some of you to excel others. For men there is reward for what they have earned, (and likewise) for women there is reward for what they have earned." [4:32]
- All have the right to gain knowledge. Islam considers the seeking of knowledge to be an obligation. The Prophet ( s) said: “Seeking knowledge is an obligation upon all Muslims.” (Ibn Maajah)
- All have the right to utilize the good and pure things Allah has stored in this universe, according to the guidelines of the religion. Allah says: "He it is, Who has made the earth subservient to you (i.e. easy for you to walk, to live and to do agriculture on it, etc.), so walk in the path thereof and eat of His provision, and to Him will be the Resurrection." [67:15]
All have the right to fill the role of leadership in society, with the condition
of course that they have the neces- sary skills and abilities to do so. The
“Whoever is given some authority over the Muslims and acts treacherously will enter Hellfire.”
Islam considers giving authority to those who are not fit as a betrayal of the trust given to us by Allah, and this is an indica - tion of the nearness of the destruction of the world and the advent of the Day of Judgment. The Prophet ( s) said: “If the trust is betrayed, then await the striking of the Hour.” (One of his companions asked): “How is it betrayed O Mes- senger of Allah?” He replied: “When authority is given to those who are not fit, then await the striking of the Hour.” (al-Bukhari)
Islam has no autonomic spiritual authority with abso- lute power like those in other
This is due to the fact that Islam abolished the practice of taking interme-
diaries between Allah and His slaves. Allah condemned the polytheists because it
led them to their worship. Allah says:
“Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allah only. And those who take protectors, helpers, and
intercessors besides Him (say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us
near to Allah.”
Allah exposed the reality of these intermediaries, clarifying that they neither have the ability to bring benefit nor inflict harm, nor can they suffice themselves in the least. Rather, they are creatures as those who worship them. Allah says: “Verily, those whom you call upon besides Allah are only slaves like yourselves. So call upon them and let them answer you if indeed you are truthful.” [7:194]
Islam strengthened the notion of a direct relationship be- tween Allah and His slaves. This relationship is built upon believing in Him Alone in all respects and turning to Him di- rectly in seeking one’s needs, repentance, help and support, without seeking mediation from any intercessors. If a person commits a sin, he raises his hands and humbles himself before Allah alone, seeking forgive- ness from Him, whenever and wherever he may be. Allah says: “And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah’s For - giveness, he will find Allah Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [4:110]
There is no clergy in Islam which make things permissible or impermissible of their own accord. None have the right to forgive others for the sins they committed against Allah or regard themselves as God’s agents to His slaves, legislating new laws in the religion, changing set statutes of beliefs, forgiving sin, and granting Paradise to whom they deem fit. The right of legislation is exclusively for Allah. In explanation of the following verse: “They (the Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their gods besides Allah.” [9:31]
The Prophet ( s) said: ”They (the Christians and the Jews) did not worship them (by praying to them, etc.) but when [the priests and rabbis] made something permissible for them, they took it to be permissible, and when they made something impermissible for them, they also made it impermissible.” (at-Tirmidhi)
The religion of Islam has given certain rights to every individual, each according
to their different roles in society. This is to ensure that life car - ries
on smoothly and in the best manner, and that all may take full benefit from the religion.
Parents, children, relatives, neighbors, friends, etc. all have specific rights mandated
for them in Islam. Allah says:
“Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, the poor, the neighbor who is
near of kin, the neighbor who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the
wayfarer [you meet], and those [slaves] whom your right hands possess. Verily,
Allah does not like such as are proud and boastful.”
The Prophet ( s) said: “Do not envy each other, do not praise an item or offer a higher price if you are not intending to buy it, do not hate each other, do not turn your backs on each other (by cutting ties), and let not one of you offer to sell something for a lesser price when he knows that his brother is about to strike a deal. Rather, be slaves of Al- lah and be brothers. The Muslim is the brother of another Muslim; he is not unjust to him, and he does not betray him, deceive him, nor belittle him. Piety and God-consciousness is here,” pointing to his heart thrice. “It is enough evil that a person belittles his Muslim brother. It is prohibited to transgress against a Muslim’s blood, wealth, and honor.” (Muslism)
The Prophet ( s) also said: “None of you truly believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.” (al-Bukhari)
Even those who show enmity to Islam have rights. Abu Azeez bin Umair the brother of Mus‘ab bin Umair said: “I was taken captive in the Battle of Badr. The Prophet ( s) said: ‘Treat the prisoners well.’ I was amongst a group of the Ansaar , and when they ate their lunch and dinner, they themselves would eat dates while they would feed me bread due to what the Prophet ( s) ordered them.” (at-Tabaraani)
The religion of Islam even gives animals certain rights as well. When the Prophet ( s) passed by an emaciated camel due to hunger, he said: “Fear Allah in regards to these animals, [a creation] which can not speak their will. If you ride them, then treat them accordingly (by making them strong and fit for that), and if you eat them, then treat them accordingly (by making them fat and healthy).” (Abu Dawood)
Islam legislates certain rights which individuals must give to a group, and other rights which a group must offer to an in - dividual. The individual should keep the interest of the group in mind, and the group should keep the interest of the indi- vidual in mind. The Prophet ( s) said: “The believers are like a solid structure, each one (brick) strengthens the other,” and then he clasped his hands and intertwined his fingers. (al-Bukhari)
When the two interests are in opposition, the interest of the group should be upheld over the interest of the individual; for example, a house which is about to collapse should be demolished because it may harm those who pass by it, and the owner should be reimbursed.
In Islam, all humans are to be guaranteed the following rights:
Islam is the religion of mercy, love and compassion, and it forbids harsh- ness. The Prophet (
“The All-Merciful shows mercy to those who show mercy. Show mercy to those on Earth, and you will be shown mercy by the One
above the heavens. The womb is derived from My name Ar-Rahman. Whoever maintains its
ties [of kin- ship], Allah will continue to have mercy on him, but whoever severs its
ties, he will be severed from Allah’s mercy. ”
Mercy in the religion of Islam is not confined to humans; rather, mercy is shown to animals as well. A woman entered Hellfire because she tortured her cat. The Prophet ( s) said: “A woman was punished due to a cat. She imprisoned it until it died, so she entered Hellfire on account of that. She did not feed it nor give it drink; she locked it up, and did not set it free to eat the insects (and other things) of the earth.” (al-Bukhari)
Showing kindness and mercy to animals is a means of entering Paradise. The Prophet ( s) said: “Once a man was tending to some business and became very thirsty. He came across a well and descended into it and drank from it. [When he came out,] he saw a dog panting and rolling his mouth in dirt [in search of water] due to thirst. The man said, ‘This dog is as thirsty as I was.’ So he descended [once again] filled his boot with water and gave water to the dog. [Due to that] Allah rewarded him by forgiving him his sins.”
One of those around the Prophet ( s) said, “O Messenger of Allah, will we be rewarded on account of our well-treatment of animals?”
He replied, “Yes indeed. For [the well-treatment of] every fresh liver (living thing) you will receive reward.”
If this is the mercy Islam shows to animals, what is the status of mercy that it shows to humans, a creature Allah has preferred and honored over all other creatures? Allah says: “And indeed We have honored the Children of Adam, and We have carried them on land and sea, and have provided them with all lawful good things, and have preferred them above many of those whom We have created with a marked preference.” [17:70]
Islam does not allow celibacy, monasticism, and the rejection of lawful worldly joys. The Prophet (
“Do not make things hard upon yourselves so that things will be made hard for you, for indeed a people made things hard on
themselves and Allah made things hard upon them, and this is what is left of them from
their places of wor - ship and homes.”
Then he recited the verse: “But the monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them, but [they sought it] only to please Allah therewith, but that they did not observe it with the right observance.” [57:27]
The Prophet ( s) said: “Eat, drink, and give charity without going into excesses or pride and vanity. Indeed Allah loves to see the traces of His bounties on His slave.” (al-Haakim)
At the same time, Islam does not permit a person to indulge in this materialistic life or engross himself in its desires and entertainments without any guidelines. Rather, it is a religion of moderateness which balances the individual’s life be- tween this world and the next, making each complimentary to the other.
It orders that a person balance between the requirements of his body and soul. For example, when a Muslim is busy carrying out the requirements of his daily life, it orders him to remember the requirements of his soul through worship. Allah says: “O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed for the prayer on the day of Fri- day, come to the remembrance of Allah and leave off business [and every other thing], that is better for you if you did but know! ” [62:9]
Furthermore, when a Muslim is busy seeking his livelihood, it reminds him not to disregard his material needs and sustenance. Allah says: “Then when the [Friday] prayer is finished, you may disperse through the land, and seek the Bounty of Allah (by working, etc. ” [62:10]
Islam praises those who gather the good of both aspects. Allah says: “Men whom neither trade nor sale diverts them from the Remembrance of Allah, or from performing the prayers, nor from giving obligatory charity. They fear a Day when hearts and eyes will be overturned (from the horror of the torment of the Day of Resurrection.” [24:37]
Islam has preserved the rights of the soul, body and intel- lect as allocated in the Shari’ah, which is not extreme in any perspective. The Muslim is charged with safeguarding himself and taking into account everything he does, as is clarified by the words of Allah: “So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom, shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom, shall see it.” [99:7-8]
He should not deny his body the lawful worldly pleasures, whether foods, drink, clothing, marriage, or work. Allah says: (Say [O Muhammad ( s) ]: “Who has forbidden the adoration with clothes given by Allah, which He has produced for his slaves, and all kinds of good and pure things of His Sustenance?” [7:32]
Islam has only forbidden filthy and harmful things, whether they cause harm to the minds, bodies, wealth, or society; for the hu- man soul was created by Allah, and He made them successors on the earth in order to worship Him and implement His legis- lations. No one has the right to destroy or bring these things to an end, except if Islam grants him the right. Allah created a suitable and complete body for this soul so that it may fulfill the commandments of Allah in regards to worship, rights, and other obligations, as well as to develop this world. Allah says: “Verily, We created man of the best stature.” [95:4]
Due to this reason, Allah ordered us to safeguard and take care of this body in accordance to the guidelines set in the Religion. Therefore, Islam has legislated the following:
Purification:Allah says: “Truly, Allah loves those who constantly turn unto Him in re- pentance and loves those who purify themselves. ” [2:222]
Allah has made ablution a condition for the validity of the prayer which a Muslim establishes five times a day. The Prophet ( s) said: “No Prayer is accepted without purification, and no charity is ac -cepted from earnings made from impermissible sources.” (Muslim)
Allah also ordered that one take a complete bath after sexual discharge or intercourse, as in His words: “And if you have had sexual discharge, then purify yourself by bathing your whole body.” [5:6]
Allah has made having a complete bath highly commendable when perform- ing congregational worship, such as the Friday Prayer, celebrations of ‘Eid, and Hajj and ‘Umrah (the greater and lesser pilgrimages).
Maintaining hygiene, which is done through the following:
- Washing one’s hands before and after meals and washing one’s mouth after eating. The Prophet ( s ) said: “After eating food, if one finds some food between his teeth, let him remove it, and if one of you finds some leftover in his mouth, let him swallow it. Who - ever does that, does what is better and good, and whoever does not, then there is no harm.” (Abu Dawood)
- Cleaning the places that may become a breeding ground for germs and filth. The Messenger of Allah ( s ) said: “There are five acts which are from the innate nature with which Allah created man: circumcision, shaving of the pubic hair, plucking the hair of the armpits, shortening the moustache, and clipping the nails.” (al-Bukhari)
Eating and drinking only those things which are pure, lawful and whole- some. Allah says:
“O you who believe! Eat of the good and lawful things that We have provided you with,
and be grateful to Allah, if it is indeed He Whom you worship.”
The religion has laid out guidelines by which one can enjoy good and pure things in a way such that it maintains moderateness without going into ex-cess, since it would be detrimental to health. Allah says: “...and eat and drink but waste not by extravagance, cer - tainly He (Allah) likes not those who waste by extrava - gance.” [7:31]
The Prophet ( s) explained how one should eat, saying: “Man does not fill a vessel worse than his stomach. It is enough for the child of Adam that he takes a few bites which will straighten his back. If you must [eat more] then a third [of the stomach should be allotted] for food, a third for water, and a third for breathing.” (at-Tirmidhi & ibn Maajah)
Islam has prohibited consuming anything filthy or im - pure, whether it is food or drink, such as carrion, blood, swine,
intoxicants, drugs, or cigarettes. One must preserve their health. Allah says:
“He has forbidden you only carrion and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which
is slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah. But if one is forced by necessity
with- out willful disobedience or transgressing due limits, then there is no
sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
Allah also says: (O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, al-ansaab, and al-azlaam (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. So avoid strictly all that [abomination] in order that you may be successful. Satan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from the prayer. So, will you not then abstain? [5:90-1]
Taking part in beneficial sports, such as wrestling. The Prophet (
s) himself once wrestled a man named Rakaanah.
Other beneficial sports include swimming, horseback rid -ing, and archery. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, the second Caliph and one of the closest companions of the Prophet ( s) , said: “Teach your children archery, swimming, and horse riding.”
- Seeking cure upon falling ill. The Prophet ( s) said: “Indeed Allah has [created] diseases as well as cures. For every disease there is a cure, but do not seek cure in the prohibited.” (Abu Dawood)
It orders that we establish worship. Acts of worship nourish the soul. A soul that is not nourished with acts of worship
is one in agony. Allah says:
“Those who believe and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah, Verily, in the remembrance of Allah do hearts
ying it its right; such as rest, nutrition, and marriage a sin. Anas bin Malik said:
“Three people came to the houses of the wives of the Prophet ( s) ask- ing about the worship of the Prophet ( s) . When they were informed, they thought it was insufficient for them and said, “Who are we in comparison to the Prophet ( s) for indeed Allah has forgiven him his past and future sins.”
One of them said, “As for me, I will pray the whole night.”
Another said, “I will fast every day without rest,”
and the other said, “I will stay away from women and never marry.”
The Messenger of Allah ( s) came [and when he heard this, he] said, “Are you the people who said such and such? As for me, by Allah, indeed I am the most fearing of Allah and pious amongst you, yet I fast and eat, I pray and sleep and I marry women. Whoever desires other than my Sunnah is not from me.” (al-Bukhari)
Islam is a Religion which encourages people to seek knowledge. Allah says:
"Say: Are those who know equal to those who know not?"
It dispraises ignorance and the ignorant. Allah mentions in the Qur’an that Moses said: "I seek refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant and foolish." [2:67]
There are certain types of knowledge which are mandatory upon every Muslim to learn; this knowledge relates to the Muslim’s daily life, worldly and religious affairs. Other types of knowledge are considered a collective duty (i.e. if some learn it, the sin of not learning would not encompass the entire society). Allah did not order His Prophet ( s) to desire more of anything in this life except knowledge. Allah ( y) says: "...and say: My Lord! Increase me in knowledge." [20:114]
Islam gives high regard to scholars and gaining knowledge. The Prophet ( s) said: “He is not from my followers: he, who does not respect his elders, nor shows mercy to the young, nor gives due right to a scholar.” (at-Tirmidhi)
Islam has given scholars an honored status. The Prophet ( s) said: “The excellence of a scholar over a worshipper is like my excel- lence over the least of you.” (at-Tirmidhi)
In order to spread knowledge and encourage that it be sought, Islam has considered seeking, learning, and teaching knowl- edge a type of striving for which a person receives reward and a path which leads to Paradise. The Prophet ( s) said: “Whoever seeks knowledge is considered to be in Jihad until he returns.” (at-Tirmidhi)
He ( s) also said: “Whoever treads a path seeking knowledge, Allah will make easy for him a path to Paradise. No group of people gather in a Masjid to recite the Book of Allah and study it, except that peace and tranquility descend upon them, they are enveloped in mercy, the angels surround them, and Allah mentions them to those present with Him. Whoever’s deeds prevent him [from attaining Paradise] his lineage would be of no benefit to him [on the Day of Judgment].” (Muslim)
Islam not only encourages seeking religious knowledge; rather, it encourages learning all beneficial knowledge. This is consid - ered a collective duty upon the Muslim nation and is consid- ered an act of worship. Allah says: “See you not that Allah sends down water (rain) from the sky, and We produce therewith fruits of varying colors, and among the mountains are streaks white and red, of varying colors and (others) very black, And of men and moving living creatures, and cattle, in like manner of various colors. It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, Oft-Forgiving.” [35:27-28]
These verses call mankind to ponder and think; which in turn would lead them to affirm the existence of a creator who created all things, it also tells us to ben - efit from all that Allah has placed in the universe. There is no doubt that those who are called to think in these verses are not the scholars of the religion alone; rather, it includes scholars in other fields who have the ability to discover the secrets Allah has stored in this universe.
For example, one learns how clouds are formed and rain falls through chemistry and physics. Similarly, one learns how plants, fruits and crops grow through the knowledge of agriculture, one learns about mountains through geology, and one learns about the forms of humans and animals through genealogy.
The religion of Islam encourages people to constantly review their deeds and actions. This in turn causes Muslims to strive and do their utmost and stay away from everything which angers Allah.
Muslims know well that Allah sees them and knows what they do, so they do what they are ordered and refrain from the unlawful. When a Muslim refrains from theft, he does so on account of his fear of Allah, not because he fears hu- mans. Islam harmonizes man’s outward and inward actions. Allah says: "And if you speak aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is even more hidden." [20:7]
Prophet Muhammad ( s) described Ihsaan as: “...to worship Allah as though you see Him. Even though you do not see Him, for He sees you.” (al-Bukhari)
The belief that Allah is the only One Who deserves to be worshipped. He is perfect in all aspects; He knows all of what takes
place in this universe, and nothing occurs except if He wills it. Allah says:
"He knows what goes into the earth and what comes forth from it, what de - scends from the heaven and what ascends thereto.
And He is with you (by his knowledge) wherever you may be. And Allah
is the All-Seer of what you do."
His knowledge surpasses material and tangible things. He knows the senti- ments and whisperings of the soul. Allah says: "And indeed We have created man, and We know what his own self whispers to him. And We are nearer to him (by Our knowledge) than his Jugular vein." [50:16]
- To believe that Allah will resurrect all people on the Day of Judgment. Allah says: "The disbelievers pretend that they will never be resurrected. Say: Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed of what you did, and that is easy for Allah." [64:7]
To believe that each individual shall be held accountable for all that he has done. Allah says:
"...and no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another."
Every person shall be held accountable before Allah for everything they did or said, no matter how minute these actions may seem, both good and evil. They will be rewarded for their good deeds, punished for their sins. Allah says: "So whosoever does good equal to the weight of a small ant shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of a small ant shall see it." [99:7-8]
- The obedience of Allah and His Messenger must be given priority over every- thing. Allah says: "Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight... are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard in His Cause, then wait until Allah brings about His Decision (punishment). And Allah guides not the people who are obsti- nate in their rebelliousness and sinfulness." [9:24]
Keeping one’s actions and deeds in check are a result of the following beliefs:
- The belief that Allah is the only One Who deserves to be worshipped. He is perfect in all aspects; He knows all of what takes place in this universe, and nothing occurs except if He wills it. Allah says: "He knows what goes into the earth and what comes forth from it, what de - scends from the heaven and what ascends thereto. And He is with you (by his knowledge) wherever you may be. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do." [57:4]
In Islam, rewards of good deeds are multiplied, while the recompense of evil deeds is not. Allah says:
"Whoever brings a good deed shall have ten times the like thereof to his credit, and whoever brings an evil deed shall have
only the recompense of the like thereof."
A person is rewarded for merely intending to do good, even if they do not follow up that intention with action. Furthermore, if a Muslim intends to do an evil deed but does not do it out of fear of Allah, they will be rewarded as well, for they left it for Allah’s sake. The Prophet ( s) men- tioned that Allah said: “If My slave intends to do any evil, do not record it as an evil deed until he does it. If he does, do not record it except as one sin, and if he leaves it for My sake, record for him one good deed. If he intends to do any deed of righteousness but does not do it, record for him one good deed. If he does it, then record for him the like of that deed up to seven hundred times.” (al-Bukhari)
Moreover, fulfilling the soul’s lawful desires is considered an act of worship, if the person’s intention is correct. If a person intends to eat and drink in order to keep his body healthy, or to earn a living and provide for his family and other depen- dants, this will be considered an act of worship and he will be rewarded on account of it. The Prophet ( s) said: “If a person spends on his family seeking reward from Allah, it will be like charity for him.” (al-Bukhari)
All deeds that a Muslim does, even keeping a good intention, is considered a charity. The Prophet said: “'Every Muslim must give charity.' They (his Companions) said: ‘And if they have nothing to give charity with?’ He re- plied: ‘He should work with his hands benefiting himself and give charity.’ They said: ‘And if he is unable’ He said: ‘He should help a suffering person in need.’ They said: ‘If he can - not’. He said: ’He should enjoin the good.’ They said: ‘And if he does not.’ He said: ‘He should avoid evil, and that will be his charity.’ ” (al-Bukhari)
In Islam, if one commits a sin, then truly repents, making a firm commitment not to return to it, the evil deed which was
recorded is replaced with a good one. Allah says:
“And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill such life as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause,
nor commit illegal sexual intercourse; whoever does this shall receive punishment.
He will re- peatedly face the torment on the Day of Resurrection, and he will
abide therein in disgrace. Except those who repent and believe and do righteous
deeds, for those, Allah will change their sins into good deeds, and Allah is
Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. ”
This is in regards to the rights of Allah. As for the rights of people, they must be returned and forgiveness must be sought from them if their rights were transgressed.
Islam addresses the intellect of the sinner and rids them of their confusion by allowing them to repent and abandon that sin. Allah ( y) says: “Say: O My slaves who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins)! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah, verily Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [39:53]
The religion of Islam has made the path to repentance easy. Allah says: “And whoever does evil or wrongs himself b ut afterwards seeks Allah’s For - giveness, he will find Allah Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [4:110]
This is in regards to Muslims. As for non-Muslims who have accepted Islam, they will be given their reward in double, due to their belief in their messengers as well as their belief in Muhammad ( s) . Allah says: “Those to whom We gave the Scripture before it, - they believe in it (the Qur’an). And when it is recited to them, they say: ‘We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from those who submit themselves to Allah in Islam as Muslims.’ These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient, and repel evil with good, and spend (in charity) out of what We have provided them.” [28:52-4]
In addition to this, Allah effaces all the sins they did before accepting Islam. When ‘Amr ibn ul-‘Aas came to accept Islam, he made a condition that Allah would forgive all his sins. Upon that, the Prophet ( s) said: “Don’t you know that Islam effaces all [the sins one did] before it?” (Muslim)
The Religion of Islam guarantees that its followers continu- ously receive the rewards for their good deeds they performed
in their worldly lives, even after they pass away. The Prophet (
“When a person dies, he ceases to receive the reward for his [good] deeds except for three: a charity which continues to
benefit people after his death, beneficial knowledge, and a pi - ous child who
supplicates to Allah for him.”
The Prophet ( s) also said: ”Whoever calls people to a guidance (good act) he will re- ceive rewards equal to the rewards of those who do that act, while their rewards is not lessened. Whoever calls people to a misguidance (evil act), he receives sin equal to the sins of those who do that act, while their sins are not lessened.” (Muslim)
This is one of the reasons why a Muslim tries his best to reform and rectify the wrongs of his society, by doing good deeds, pro - moting righteousness, and fighting evil and warning people from it
Islam is a religion which respects one’s intellect and thought, and has called man to use them appropriately. Al - lah says:
“Verily, in the heavens and the earth are signs for the believ- ers. And in your creation, and what He scattered (through
the earth) of moving (living) creatures are signs for peo- ple who have Faith
with certainty. And in the alternation of night and day, and the provision (rain)
that Allah sends down from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its
death, and in the turning about of the winds, are signs for a people who understand.
Many verses in the Qur’an address the intellect and encourage the person to think. Many times, Allah says in the Qur’an: (Do they not understand?), (Do they not reflect?), (Do they not think and pon -der?) Although this importance has been given to the intellect, Islam limits the circum- stances in which it should be used. One should only use it to comprehend physical, tangible things, not matters pertaining to the unseen world, for this is futile and a waste of energy.
One of the apparent ways that Islam respects unadulterated intellect is that it reprimands those who blindly follow others without knowledge, or guidance. Allah says: “When it is said to them: Follow what Allah has sent down. They say: Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following. Even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided?” [2:170]
The Religion of Islam conforms to fitrah: the natural disposition of man with which Allah created him. Therefore, Islam does
not contradict the man’s nature. Allah says:
“...Allah’s Fitrah (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in the [religion of
Allah] that is the straight Religion but most men know not. ”
This fitrah can sometimes be tainted by external factors, thus causing it to devi - ate from its correct path. The Prophet ( s) said: “except on the true fitrah but his parents make him a Chris - tian, a Jew, or a Zoroastrian.” (al-Bukhari)
It is the religion which leads to the Straight Path. Allah says: “Say [O Muhammad ]: Truly, my Lord has guided me to a Straight Path, a right Religion, the Religion of Abraham, who turned away from all false religions, and he was not among those who associated partners with Allah.” [6:161]
Nothing in Islam contradicts one’s unadulterated intellect; rather, sound intellect attests to the truth, suitability, and benefit of the teachings of Islam. All its com - mandments and prohibitions are just. Islam does not command anything except for an absolute or relative benefit. Likewise, it has forbidden things due to the fact they are evil, or because its evil outweighs its good. This fact becomes clear when one ponders the Qur’an and hadeeths of the Messenger ( s ) .
Islam liberated humans from worshipping creatures to the exclusion of Al- lah or along with Allah, whether those objects
of worship are Prophets, Angels, or anything else, to worshipping Allah alone. This
is achieved by establishing the fact that no one can extend benefit, ward harm, or
provide sustenance ex - cept Allah. Allah says:
“Yet they have taken besides Him other deities that created nothing but rather are themselves created, and do not possess
the ability to neither harm nor ben- efit for themselves, and possess no power
(of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead. ”
All matters are in the Hands of Allah. Allah says: “And if Allah touches you with harm, there is none who can remove it but He; and if He intends any good for you, there is none who can repel His Favor which He grants to whomsoever of His slaves He wills.” [10:107]
This applies to the Messenger of Allah ( s) as well, irrespective of his status with Allah. If it applies to him, then it necessarily applies to others as well. Allah says: “Say [O Muhammad ]: I possess no power of benefit or harm to myself except as Allah wills. If I had the knowledge of the Unseen, I would have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil would have touched me. I am but a warner and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe.” [7:188]
Islam has liberated and relieved man from stress, fear and confusion by resolv- ing its causes; for example:
Allah has relieved humans from the fear of death by stating that it is in inevitable fact in His Hands. Allah says: “And no person can ever die except by Allah’s Leave and at an appointed term.” [3:145]
However much man tries to flee from death... it will overcome him. Allah says: “Say (to them): Verily, the death from which you flee will surely meet you.” [62:8]
Allah has freed humans from the fear of poverty and destitution. He says: “And no (moving) living creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Al- lah. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit (in the uterus, grave, etc.). All is in a Clear Book.” [11:6]
As for the fear of disease and other afflictions, Allah says: “No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees, before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah. In order that you may not be sad over mat- ters that you fail to obtain, nor rejoice because of that which has been given to you. And Allah likes not prideful boasters.” [57:22]
About harm from anything of the creation, the Messenger of Allah ( s) said: “Safeguard yourselves from transgressing the limits of Allah, and Allah will safeguard you. Safeguard yourselves from transgress- ing the limits of Allah, and Allah will guide you and safeguard you from the hardships of this world and the Hereafter. Be mindful of Allah in times of ease, and He will remember you in times of (your) hardship. If you ask, ask Allah, and if you seek help, seek help from Allah. All that will take place has been recorded. If peo- ple try to extend you any benefit which Allah has not ordained for you, they will never be able to. And if people try to harm you with something which Allah has not ordained for you, they will never be able to. If you are capable of bearing patiently with certainty, then do so. If you cannot, bear patiently, for doing so over things you dislike leads to much good. Know that victory is achieved through patience, and that after anguish comes relief, and with hardship comes ease.” (al-Haakim)
Islam is a religion which enjoins moderateness, both in re- ligious and worldly matters. Allah says:
“Thus We have made you [Muslims] a just and balanced nation, that you be witnesses over mankind, and the Messenger (Muham
- mad ) be a witness over you.”
It is a religion of ease. The Prophet ( s) said: “Allah did not send me to make things difficult, obstinate and inflexible; rather, [he sent me] as a teacher and to make things easy.” (Muslim)
Its teachings enjoin Muslims to try to make things easy whenever possible. The Messenger of Allah ( s) said: “Give glad-tidings, and do not make things hard for people ; rather make things easy and do not make things hard.” (Muslim)
It is a Religion of tolerance and kindness. A’ishah the wife of the Prophet ( s) said that a group of Jews came to the Messenger of Allah ( s) and said: “Death be upon you.” A’ishah replied, “And upon you be death and curses.”
She said: “The Messenger of Allah ( s) said, ”
Easy O A’ishah. Indeed Allah loves kindness in all matters. “ I said, “O Messenger of Allah ( s) did you not hear what they said?“
The Messenger of Allah ( s) replied, ”I already said, ‘And upon you.’” (al-Bukhari)
It is a Religion which seeks the well-being of all people. The Prophet ( s) said: “The best people in the sight of Allah are those who bring the most benefit to others. The best deeds in the sight of Allah are those which bring joy to another Muslim, bring him some relief, pay off a debt, or satiate another’s hunger. That I walk with a Muslim in fulfilling his need is more beloved to me than if I seclude myself in devotion in a Masjid for a month. Whoever restrains his anger, Allah will keep his private affairs hidden. Whoever suppresses his rage when he is able to take vengeance, Allah will fill his heart with pleasure on the Day of Resur - rection. Whoever walks with his Muslim brother to fulfill his needs until he fulfills it, Allah will make his feet firm on a day in which people’s feet slip. Indeed bad manners spoil one’s deeds as vinegar spoils honey.” (at-Tabaraani)
It is a religion of moderateness not of hardship. Allah says: “Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He will recieve reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he will be punished for that (evil) which he has earned.” [2:286]
All the commandments of Islam are built upon this principle. The Prophet ( s) said: “Whatever I have prohibited you, avoid it. And whatever I have ordered you, do as much of it as possible, for indeed those before you were destroyed due to their persistent questioning and differing with their prophets.” (Muslim)
The best evidence for this is the story of the Companion who came to the Messenger of Allah ( s) and said: “‘O Messenger of Allah ( s) I am destroyed!’ He said, ‘What is wrong with you?’ The Companion said, ‘I had intercourse with my wife while I was fasting.’ The Messenger of Allah ( s) said, Are you able to free a slave?’ He replied in the negative. The Messenger of Allah ( s) said, ‘ Are you able to fast for two consecutive months?’ He replied in the negative. The Messenger of Allah ( s) said, ‘Are you able to feed sixty poor people?’ He replied in the negative. The Prophet ( s) waited a while, and when we were in that same state, a person came by with a container of dates, a container of the type woven from date-palms. He (the Messenger r) said, ‘Where is the questioner?’ The man replied, ‘I am.’ He said, ‘Take this and give it as charity.’ So the man said, ‘Shall I give it as charity to someone poorer than me O Messenger of Allah ( s) ? By Allah, there is no family in Medina poorer than my family.’ The Prophet ( s) laughed [smiled] until his teeth showed and said, ‘Feed your family.’ ” (al-Bukhari)
All commandments and acts of worship in Islam have been legislated according to a person’s ability; a person is never overburdened. A Muslim may even be excused from perform- ing these commandments and acts of worship, as is demon- strated in the following cases:
- One of the pillars of prayer is to perform it while in a stand- ing position if one is able to do so. If a Muslim cannot per - form it while standing up, they may do so while sitting, and if they are not able, they may perform it while lying down on their sides. If they cannot even do that, they can perform it through gestures.
- If a person does not have the minimum required amount of money in his possession, he does not have to offer the obligatory charity (Zakaah). On the contrary, if the person is needy or poor, he is to be allotted a share of the Zakaah.
- Muslims are excused from fasting if they are sick. Women are also excused if they are pregnant, or if they are experi- encing their menstrual periods or post-partum bleeding.
One is excused from performing Hajj if they are not able physically or finan - cially. Allah says:
“And the performing of Hajj to the House [Kaaba] is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, those who have the ability. ”
If a person fears that he will die out of hunger, it is permissible for him, according to his need, to eat and drink things normally forbidden, such as pork and wine. Allah says: “But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him.” [2:173]
The Religion of Islam respects all divine religions in their unadulter - ated forms and obliges Muslims to believe in them
and to love and respect the messengers which brought them. Allah says:
“Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers saying,
‘We believe in some but reject others,’ and wish to adopt a way in between. ”
Islam forbids a Muslim from insulting others’ beliefs or religion. Allah says: “And insult not those whom they (the disbelievers) worship besides Allah, lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge.” [6:108]
Rather, it commands one to discuss and argue with the disbelievers in a good, wise, and kind manner. Allah says: “Invite to the path of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided.” [16:125]
It calls a person to pursue purposeful dialogue which would unite people upon the divine methodology. Allah says: “Say: O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as gods besides Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims.” [3:64]
Islam is a Religion of peace in the truest form; whether this is within society, as the Prophet (
“Shall I tell you who a true believer is? A person with whom others entrust their money and lives. A Muslim is him whom people
are safe from (the evils of) his hands and tongue. A true Mujaahid (fighter in
the path of Allah) is he who strives to obey Allah. The Muhaajir (is one who
abandons sinful acts.”
(Ahmad & Ibn Hibbaan)
...or on the global level, which is based on establishing mutual relationships be- tween Muslim and non-Muslim societies based upon non-aggression,. Allah says: “O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islam, and follow not the footsteps of Satan. Verily! He is to you a clear enemy.” [2:208]
Islam orders Muslims to resist aggression and to stop transgression. Allah says: “Then whoever transgresses against you, transgress likewise against them.” [2:194]
In order to ensure that peace prevails, Islam has ordered Muslims in times of battle to accept an armistice and stop fighting if the enemy asks for such. Allah says: “But if they incline to peace, then you also incline to it, and (put your) trust in Allah. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” [8:61]
Although Islam is keen on maintaining peace, it does not seek it at the cost of Muslim’s honor or their humiliation. On the contrary, it orders Muslims to maintain peace as well as their honor. Allah says: “So be not weak and ask not for peace (from the enemies of Islam) while you have the upper hand. Allah is with you and He will never decrease the reward of your good deeds.” [47:35]
There is no compulsion in the religion of Islam, such that people must em- brace it. People should only embrace it if they
are convinced. Coercion is not a means to spread Islam and its teachings. Allah says:
“There is no compulsion in Religion. Verily, the Right (Path of) guidance has be- come distinct from the wrong path. ”
Faith and Guidance are in the Hands of Allah. Allah says: “And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So will you then compel mankind until they become believers?” [10:99]
From the distinguishing features of Islam is that it allows those who oppose them from the People of the Book to prac- tice
their religions. Abu Bakr said:
“You will pass by some people who have devoted themselves to monasteries. Leave them and that to which they have devoted
They are also given the freedom to eat and drink what their religions allow them. Their swine are not to be killed nor are their intoxicants to be spilled. In civil affairs such as marriage, divorce, financial dealings, they have the freedom to abide by the legislations of their religions according to the conditions and guidelines Islam has established.
Islam encourages Muslims to emancipate slaves and has promised a great reward for those who do so, and it is a means to Paradise.
The Prophet (
“Whoever frees a slave, Allah will free each part [of the own- er’s body] which he frees [of the slaves body] from the Hellfire
(meaning his whole body)”
Islam has legalized only one way through which a person may be bound to slavery, which is to be taken captive in times of war. This is allowed with the condition that the leader of the Muslims commands them to do so, for in Islam, prisoners of war are dealt with in specific ways which Allah has com - manded. Allah says: “So, when you meet those [in war] who disbelieve smite (their) necks, till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly [on them, i.e. take them as captives]. Thereafter [is the time] either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom), or ransom [according to what benefits Islam], until the war lays down its burden.” [47:4]
Despite this, Islam has legislated many ways to free slaves. Emancipating a slave is expiation for certain sins in Islam, such as:
*Accidental manslaughter. Allah says: “It is not for a believer to kill a believer except [that it be] by mistake, and whosoever kills a believer by mistake, [it is ordained that] he must set free a believing slave and a compensation (blood money) be given to the de - ceased’s family, unless they remit it. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer; the freeing of a believing slave [is prescribed] and if he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, compensation (blood money) must be paid to his family, and a believing slave must be freed.” [4:91]
*Breaking an oath. Allah says: “Allah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths [which you break]; for its expiation (a broken oath) feed ten poor persons, on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families; or clothe them; or manumit a slave.” [5:89]
*Making one’s wife forbidden upon himself. Allah says: “And those who make their wives unlawful to them and wish to free them - selves from what they uttered, [the penalty] in that case [is] the freeing of a slave before they touch each other.” [58:3]
*Sexual intercourse while fasting during the month of Ramadan. Abu Hurai - rah narrated that a man had sexual relation with his wife while he was fast - ing in Ramadan. When he told the Prophet ( s) he replied: “Can you free a slave?” He replied “No” He then said, “Can you fast for two consecutive months?” He replied, “No.” Then he said, “Then feed sixty poor people.” (Muslim)
*Islam has made it expiation for physically abusing a slave. The Prophet ( s) said: “Whoever slaps a slave or hits him, the expiation for that is to free him.” (Muslim)
The religion of Islam keenly seeks to free slaves, as can be seen in the following:
Islam orders people to accept a contract of emancipation. This is a contract between the master and his slave in which he is set free in return for an agreed sum of money. Some scholars have stated that it is obligatory upon the request of the slave, citing evidence from the verse: “And such of your slaves as seek a writing (of emancipation) give them such writing, if you know that they are good and trustworthy. And give them something yourselves out of the wealth of Allah which He has bestowed upon you.” [24:33]
Islam has legislated that Zakaah (obligatory charity) be given in order to free slaves. Allah says: “Charity (Zakaah) is only for the fuqaraa ́(poor) and masaakeen (the needy) and those employed to collect [the funds]; and to attract the hearts of those who are inclined [towards Islam]; and those [slaves] who wish to free themselves by a contract; and for those in debt; and for Allah’s Cause, and for the wayfarer; a duty imposed by Allah. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.” [9:60]
The religion of Islam holds high regards for the status of women and gives her due honor. It has made honoring her a sign
of a good, wholesome character. The Prophet (
“The believers who have the most complete faith are those who are the best of them in character, and the best of you are
the best of you towards their wives.”
Islam defends her human nature and does not blame her for the expulsion of Adam from Paradise, nor is she considered the source of sin, as do some other religions. Allah says: “O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and wom - en. And fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual [rights] and [do not cut the relations of] the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever a Watcher over you.” [4:1]
Islam falsified the oppressive notions held against women, especially those which regard women as a being inferior to men; which, in turn leads them to being de- prived of many of their basic human rights. The Messenger of Allah ( s) said: “Verily women are the twin halves of men.” (Abu Dawood)
Islam has protected her honor and chastity; a castigatory pun- ishment would be served in the right of those who falsely accuse them of fornication. Allah says: “And those who accuse chaste women, and produce not four witnesses, flog them with eighty lashes, and reject their testimony forever; they indeed are disobedient to Allah.” [24:4]
Like men, Islam guarantees women their right to inheritance, a right they were deprived of prior to Islam. Allah says: “There is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest related, whether, the property be small or large - a legal share.” [4:7]
Islam gives women the right to do as they please with their wealth, such as buy- ing and selling in accordance to specific guidelines set in Shari’ah . Allah says: “O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have earned.” [2:267]
Islam has made it an obligation that they be educated. The Prophet ( s) said: “Seeking knowledge is obligatory on all Muslims.” (Ibn Maajah)
It has also made it an obligation that they receive good upbringing and are raised properly; this is a cause by which one would enter Paradise. The Prophet ( s) said: “‘Whoever has three daughters whom he shelters, takes care of, and is merci- ful to, certainly enters Paradise.’ A man then said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, how about two?’ He said, ‘even two.’” (al-Adab al-Mufrad)
Islam is the Religion of purity, both physical or spiritual.
Spiritual purity includes the following:
- Purity from the filth of associating partners with Allah. Allah says: “ Verily! Joining others in worship with Allah is a great oppression and injustice.” [31:13]
- Purity from the filth of doing deeds to show off. Allah says: “So woe unto those performers of prayers. Who delay their prayer from their stated fixed times. Those who do good deeds only to be seen [of others]. And refuse to give even the smallest of kind - nesses (e.g. neighborly needs: pots, pans, knives...)” [107:4-7]
- Purity from being pleased with one’s actions. Allah ( y) mentioned that Luqman said to his son: “And turn not your face away from men with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes not each arrogant boaster. And be moderate (or show no insolence) in your walking, and lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is the voice (braying) of the ass.” [31:18]
- Purity from vanity. The Prophet ( s) said: “Whoever drags his clothing [on the ground] out of vanity, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Requital.” (al-Bukhari)
- Purity from the filth of pride. The Prophet ( s) said: “A person who has a seed’s worth of pride in his heart will not enter Paradise.” A man said, “O Messenger of Allah ﷺ what if a person likes to wear nice clothing and shoes?” He replied, “Indeed Allah is beautiful and loves beauty. Pride is that you reject the truth and look down upon others. ” (Muslim)
Purity from the filth of envy. The Prophet (
“Do not hate each other, do not envy each other, and do not turn your backs upon each other; but rather be the slaves of
Allah and be brothers. It is impermissible for a Muslim to abandon his
brother for more than three days.”
As for physical purity, Allah says: “O you who believe! When you intend to offer the prayer, wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub [by passing wet hands over] your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janaabah [i.e. had a sexual discharge or intercourse] purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women [i.e. sexual intercourse] and you find no water, then seek clean earth and wipe therewith your faces and hands. Allah does not want to place you in diffi - culty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favor on you that you may be thankful.” [5:6]
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet ( s) said: “The [following] verse was revealed in description of the inhabitants of Qubaa ́: "In it are men who love to purify themselves. And Allah loves those who purify themselves." [9:108]
They purified [after relieving themselves] themselves with water, so this verse was revealed in their regards. (Abu Dawood & at-Tirmidhi)
The religion of Islam has a great inner strength. It enters the hearts and makes one obsessed with it. For this reason, many
continue to accept Islam in spite of the weak financial and moral backing its callers
receive. Even though its enemies spend vast amounts of money to distort and mar the
image of Islam, people still accept Islam in droves. Rarely does a person enter Islam
and then reject it after that. This inner strength also influenced some Orientalists
who initially studied Islam in order to find dubious points therein. The beauty of
Islam and its true principles which conform to the natural disposition of man and
sound intellect changed their lives, and they later accepted Islam. Previous enemies
to Islam now attest that it is the true Religion. Gibb said:
Well, then, if the Qur’an were of his own composition, other men could rival it. Let them produce ten verses like it. If they could not (and it is obvious that they could not), let them accept the Qur’an as an outstanding evidential miracle.
Islam is a Religion of social support; it has obligated upon Muslims to at- tend to the needs of their fellow brothers, wherever
they may be. The Prophet (
“The believers in their love, mercy and their feeling for each other are like one body: if one part feels pains, all the
other parts feel pain by fever and sleeplessness.”
Islam orders that Muslims strive to improve their conditions through offering charity, whether that charity be obligatory or voluntary. The Prophet ( s) said: “None of you truly believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.” (al-Bukhari)
It orders that Muslims support their brothers in times of crises and agony. The Prophet ( s) said: “The believers are like a solid structure, each one [brick] strengthens the other,” and then he clasped his hands and intertwined his fingers).” (al-Bukhari)
It orders that Muslims aid their brothers and assist them in times of war. Allah says: “And if they seek your help in Religion, it is your duty to help them.” [8:72]
It forbids that they be forsaken in their time of need. The Prophet ( s) said: “No person forsakes defending his Muslim brother when his honor is being attacked, except that Allah will forsake him at a time when he needs it most. And no person comes to the aid of his Muslim brother when his honor is being attacked except that Allah will come to his aid at a time he needs it the most.” (Ahmad & Abu Dawood)
- The Religion of Islam came with a just and fair system of inheritance, one which distributes the wealth of the deceased amongst his heirs each accord - ing to their right, whether they be young or old, male or female, This division of wealth is one which all sound intellects will attest to. The wealth is distributed amongst the heirs of a deceased according to their lineage to the deceased and the benefit they might derive from it. No one has the right to distribute the in - heritance the way he desires. One of the benefits of this system is that it distrib - utes resources, no matter how vast, by dividing them into smaller entities, thus making monopolization impossible. The Noble Qur’an clarifies the share which should be given to children parents, spouses, and kith and kin in Surah an-Nisaa in three verses: 11, 12, and 176. The Prophet ( s) also said: “Indeed Allah has given each person his due right. So let not one of you bequeath something to someone who has already been allotted a portion of the inheritance.” (Abu Dawood & at-Tirmidhi)
The religion of Islam has legislated the way one can be- queath a portion of his wealth. Every Muslim has the right to bequeath
a portion of his wealth which they wish to be used after his death for a righteous
cause in order that it be counted for him as a continuous charity. However, the religion
has lim- ited the maximum amount a person can bequeath to a third of his total wealth.
Aamir bin Sa’d said:
“The Prophet (
s) visited me while I was sick in Mecca. I said to him, ‘I have some wealth,
may I bequeath all of it [in charity]?’ He replied, ‘No.’ I said, ‘Then half
of it?’ He replied, ‘No.’ Then I said, ‘A third?’ He replied, ‘A third, and a
third is much. If you leave your heirs rich it would be better for them than
to leave them begging . Whatever you spend it will act as a charity for you,
even a morsel of food which your hand feeds your wife. Perhaps Allah will raise
your status and cause some people to benefit from you, and cause others to be
Islam has placed a condition by which one can bequeath, spe- cifically, that he must not harm his other rightful heirs. Allah says: “... after payment of legacies they may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused [to anyone]. This is a Com- mandment from Allah.” [4:12]
The Religion of Islam has introduced a system of criminal punishment which guarantees peace and security of society from
crime. Murder is prevented, wealth and honor is protect- ed, criminals are subdued,
and peoples’ rights are protected from being usurped. Crime is reduced and its impact
decreased, for in Islam each crime has a fixed punishment which suits it. It sentences
capital punish- ment for premeditated murder. Allah says:
“ O you who believe! The law of equality in punishment is prescribed for you in case of murder.”
The killer is not be beheaded if the guardians of the deceased choose to pardon him. Allah says: “But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives, etc.) of the killed against blood money, then adhering to it with fairness and payment of the blood money to the heir should be made in fairness.” [2:178]
The punishment of theft is severing the hand from the wrist. Allah says: “Sever the hand of the thief, male or female, as a recompense for that which they committed, a punishment by way of example from Allah. And Allah is All Powerful, All Wise.” [5:38]
If a thief knew that his hand would be severed if he stole, he would not steal. He would value his hand, and people’s money would be safe from his evil.
The punishment for fornication is flogging for those who were never married. Allah says: “The woman and the man guilty of illegal sexual intercourse, flog each of them with a hundred stripes.” [24:2]
A person is also be flogged if he falsely accuses another of fornication. Allah says: “And those who accuse chaste women, and produce not four witnesses, flog them with eighty stripes.” [24:4]
All punishments and castigations in Islam are derived from a general principle. Allah says: “The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof.” [42:40]
Allah also says: “And if you punish, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted.” [16:126]
There are specific conditions and guidelines for the implementation of these castigations. Furthermore, the implementation of these castigations is not a determined matter such that they must be implemented; rather, one may par - don and forgive if the castigation relates to that category of rights which be- long to humans. Allah says: “... but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his re - ward is due from Allah. ” [42:40]
The reason behind the implementation of these castigations is not to seek revenge, or to lash out with harshness. Rather, the goal behind the implementation of these castigations is to protect the rights of humans, to stabilize the security within society and to serve as a deterrent for those who think of do- ing something which would harm it. If the person who wants to kill knows that he will be killed as well, and the person who wants to steal knows that his hand will be cut off, and the for - nicator and the one who falsely accuses others of this crime knows that he will be flogged, this would most certainly deter him from doing these crimes. Allah says: “And there is (a saving of) life for you in al-Qisas (the Law of Equality in punishment), O men of understanding, that you may become of the pious.” [2:179]
Some may say that the castigations legislated in Islam for cer - tain crimes are too harsh. Everyone agrees that these actions are crimes whose danger is apparent in society and that they must be dealt with and eradicated, and that those who commit them should be punished. Therefore, the only difference (in opinion) here concerns the type of punishment which should be mete out for these crimes. Each of us should ask himself whether the pun- ishments legislated in Islam are more successful in eradicating crime and lessening it, or man-made laws, which only increase the rate of crime. Indeed an unhealthy body part must be ampu- tated if it means the survival for the rest of the body.
The religion of Islam has permitted all types of financial transactions, such as buying and selling, forming of compa- nies,
rent, trade and bartering in order to make matters pertain- ing to daily life easy
for them. This of course, is permitted in accordance to specific guidelines set in
Shari’ah such that no party is harmed by the transaction and individual rights remain
preserved. Also, both sides should be happy with the agreement, and the prod- uct
should be known amongst them as well as the relative conditions pertaining to it.
Nothing is forbidden in Islam except if it ensues a harm or danger or one of the
parties in the transaction stands to be harmed, such as interest, gambling, or a
transaction in which the product or its conditions are unknown.
Although, everyone has the right to freely use his money in accordance to Shari’ah, a person may be debarred from using it if his actions would inflict harm to himself or others. The young, insane, incompetent , and those in debt until they pay off their loans are among those who are debarred from using their wealth. In this, we can see a great wisdom and protection of rights which clearly accords to sound intellect.
Islam is a clear and unambiguous religion. There is no belief in Islam which is confusing; a person has the right to ask
about all of this. Allah says:
“So ask of those who have knowledge of the Scripture [scholars] if you know not. ”
Islam has sternly warned against hiding knowledge from others which Allah has revealed. Allah says: “Verily, those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and the guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the People in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allah and cursed by the cursers. ” [2:159]
Islam is a Religion of unity and cooperation which calls Muslims to stand together in unity so that they may achieve honor
and pride. This is achieved through the following:
- Leaving aside personal wants, and desires which are stirred up by nation- alistic and tribal feelings, and are considered factors that would lead to the weakness and disintegration of the Muslim nation.
- Purifying beliefs and acts of worship from things that taint them, such as as- sociating partners with Allah and innovations in the Religion.
Cooperation between Muslims in all affairs, whether political economical, social, etc... which lead to peace and security.
“And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allah, and be not divided among yourselves. ”
slam prohibits that Muslims differ and divide into groups. Allah says: “And be not as those who divided and differed among them - selves after the clear proofs had come to them. It is they for whom there is an awful torment. ” [3:105]
Furthermore, differing is not from the religion of Allah. Allah says: “Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you [O Muhammad ( s) ] have no concern in them in the least. Their affair is only with Allah, Who then will tell them what they used to do.” [6:159]
The religion has clarified the detrimental results of differing and division; among them, the enemies of Islam would not fear the Muslims and would gain the upper hand, and the Muslims would fall to a low level. Allah says: “... and do not dispute (with one another) lest you lose courage and your strength depart.” [8:46]
Some of the matters of the unseen world have been ex- plained in Islam, as it has mentioned stories of previous na- tions.
Many verses detail what happened between those na- tions and their Prophets and Messengers.
“ And indeed We sent Moses with Our Ayaat (proofs, evi- dences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and a man- ifest
authority, to Pharaoh and his chiefs but they followed the command of Pharaoh,
and the command of Pharaoh was no right guide.”
Allah says: “ And (remember) when Jesus the son of Mary, said: ‘O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allah unto you confirming the Torah before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad. But when he (Ah- mad, i.e. Muhammad ( s) ) came to them with clear proofs, they said: ‘This is plain magic.’” [61:6]
Allah says: “And to ‘Aad (We sent) their brother Hud, He said, ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other god but Him. Certainly, you do nothing but invent (lies)!” [11:50]
Allah says: “And to Thamud (We sent) their brother Salih, He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah, you have no other god but Him. He brought you forth from the earth and settled you therein, then ask forgiveness of Him and turn to Him in repentance. Certainly, my Lord is Near (to all by His Knowledge), responsive.” [11:61]
Similarly, Allah narrated the stories of other prophets and messengers and what took place between them and their nations.
The religion of Islam challenges all mankind to bring forth something similar to the Qur’an, the final Heavenly Book. This
challenge is ongoing until the Day of Judgment. Allah says:
“Let them then produce a recital like unto it (the Qur’an) if they are indeed truth- ful. ”
Allah lessened this challenge by asking mankind to try to bring only a few chap- ters similar to the chapters of the Qur’an. Allah says: “Or they say, ‘He (Prophet Muhammad ( s) ) forged it (the Qur’an).’ Say: ‘Bring you then ten forged chapters like unto it, and call whomsoever you can other than Allah (to your help), if you speak the truth!’” [11:13]
Allah lessened this challenge further and asked them to try to bring forth one chapter (1) similar to it. Allah says: “And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (this Qur’an) to Our slave (Muhammad) then produce a chapter of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are indeed truthful.” [2:23]
This challenge was made to all of creation, jinn and men. Allah says: “Say: If mankind and jinn were together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could never produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another.’” [17:88]
Jihad is legislated to protect the religion, individual, fam- ily, and country. It also commands that jihad be waged against
those who seek to impede the spread of the religion of Allah, for it is a global
call, not limited to a specific race. Therefore, everyone should be given a chance
to know it and the good- ness, justice and love it contains. Jihad is also waged
in order to relieve oppression and to aid the oppressed. Allah says:
“And fight in the Way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors.
Jihad in Islam is waged in order that Allah’s Word be made su- preme and that His religion may spread. Allah says: “And fight them until there is no more disbelief and polytheism, and the religion will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world].” [8:39]
A person said to the Prophet ( s) : “A person fights for war-booty, another fights for fame, and yet another fights to showoff. Which one is doing so for the sake of Allah?” The Prophet ( s) answered: “Whoever fights in order to raise the Word of Allah and make it supreme, he is the one who does so for the sake of Allah” (al-Bukhari)
The goal of Jihad is not to achieve some worldly, personal, or satanic benefit, nor is it carried out to expand one’s boundar - ies, show one’s military strength, or revenge. Allah says: “And be not like those who come out of their homes boast - fully and to be seen of men.” [8:47]
Islam is a religion which enjoins the good and forbids the evil. This safeguards the Muslim nation. For the tenets of the religion can never be upheld unless its followers adhere to its com - mandments and abstain from its prohibitions. It also seeks to rectify those who have diverged from the Straight Path, and deter them from doing sinful acts. In this manner, society is safeguarded from evil and decay. The Prophet ( s) said: “The likes of those who stay within the limits set by Allah and those who trespass them is like a group of people who divided their places on a ship (before setting out to sea). Some of them were on the upper deck while others were on the lower deck. When those on the lower deck required water, they had to pass by those above them. So they said, ‘If we make a hole in our part, we will not have to bother those on top.’ If they (those on the upper deck) left them to do as they pleased, they would all be destroyed, and if they are stopped they would all be saved.” (al-Bukhari)
The religion of Islam is universal and covers every aspect of life, such that it has legislated laws and regulations concerning
transactions, warfare, marriage, economy, politics and acts of worship and so on.
This builds a perfect society; even if mankind gathers together to produce something
like it, they would never be able to do so. The more a society furthers itself from
these laws and regulations, the more corrupt it becomes. Allah says:
“And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings
for those who have submit - ted themselves (to Allah as Muslims). ”
Islam has defined the relationship between a Muslim and his Lord, his society and surround - ings, both living and nonliving. There is nothing in Islam which is rejected by the natural disposition of man or his sound intellect. A proof which points to this fact is the importance it has paid to ethics and specific issues which deal with daily life, such as the manners specific to answering the call of nature and what a Muslim should do before, during and after reliev - ing himself. Abdurrahman b. Zaid said that someone said to Salman al-Faarisi,
“Your Prophet has taught you everything, even how to relieve yourself!?” Salman replied: “Yes indeed. He forbade us from facing the direction of Mecca when defecating and urinating, and that we clean ourselves with our right hands, and that we use less than three stones when doing so, or that we clean ourselves with dung or bones.” (Muslim)
The religion of Islam is a sign of the advent of the Day of Resurrection and end of this world. The Prophet ﷺ clarified that
he was the last Prophet, and his commissioning as a Prophet was a sign of the nearness
of the Final Hour. Anas said that the Prophet (
“‘The Hour and I were raised like these two,’ and he joined his middle and index finger together.”
This is due to the fact that he is the last and final Messenger.